Eyelid surgery necessitates a thorough knowledge of eyelid anatomy. Recent contributions to the literature have significantly advanced our understanding of eyelid anatomy. In this review, we present an update of the anatomy and the implications for upper eyelid surgery. Aspects to be covered include the levator aponeurosis, Müller's muscle, lamina propria mucosae of conjunctiva, orbital septum, myoneural junction of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle, adipose tissue, and the ligament system.
From the *Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; †Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, United Kingdom; and ‡South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia.
Received July 16, 2008, and accepted for publication, after revision, August 19, 2008.
All cadavers shown here were Japanese, and they were registered with Aichi Medical University. Proper consents and approvals were obtained before their use. The methods used for securing the human tissues were humane, and complied with the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.
Reprints: Hirohiko Kakizaki, MD, PhD, Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan. E-mail: email@example.com.