Autologous fat is an excellent soft-tissue filler, given its abundance and ease of harvest. Nevertheless, the technique is accompanied by postoperative complications such as fat necrosis, calcification, and sclerotic nodules. These problems directly influence surgical efficacy.
Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was used to confirm the location of abnormal adipose tissue preoperatively. Depending on the characteristics of the lesion, the liquefied fat was aspirated or the sclerotic lesion excised. Pressurized dressings were used postoperatively for both techniques.
Seventeen patients who experienced complications after autologous fat injection were treated. Pathologic examination of excised samples demonstrated changes including fat necrosis, calcification, hyalinization, and fibroplasia.
Intramammary autologous fat injection should only be used with caution. Selecting suitable indications and correct surgical techniques make autologous fat grafting an ideal method for breast augmentation. Strictly controlling the injection volume and injecting diffusely in multiple layers to allow fat granules to distribute evenly within the breast, are effective methods to reduce postoperative complications.