Secondary Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

Penile Reconstruction by the Free Scapular Flap and Malleable Penis Prosthesis

Yang, Mingyong MD; Zhao, Muxin MD; Li, Senkai MD; Li, Yangqun MD

doi: 10.1097/
Original Article

Background: Penile reconstruction has always been a challenging problem for plastic surgeons while facing patients with severe congenital deformities and gender dysphoria and those who have suffered penile loss because of trauma, self-amputation, malignancy, and so on. Since 1936, when Bogoras first constructed a total penis, attempts have been made by different techniques, including skin flaps or myocutaneous flaps. And with development of free tissue transfer and microsurgical techniques, various free skin flaps, such as the radial free forearm flap, the superficial inferior epigastric artery flap, the superficial circumflex iliac artery flap, have been attempted for phallic construction, with the goal of functional (including a competent neourethra that allows voiding while standing and sexual intercourse) and cosmetic result. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the scapular free flap and implantation of malleable penile prosthesis for penile reconstruction.

Patients and Methods: Since March 2000, 20 patients with penile loss were reconstructed in a 1-stage procedure by transferring scapular flap and implantation of a malleable penile prosthesis. The age of the patients ranged between 21 and 36 years old. Of these patients, 12 had penile amputation resulting from an electric accident; the other 8 were self-amputated.

Results: All the flaps remained 100% viable postoperatively. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 5 years. There were no cases of urethral fistula, urethral stenosis, prosthesis extrusion, or infection. The reconstructed penis yielded satisfactory function and esthetic appearance.

Conclusion: The scapular free flap is an ideal flap that achieves satisfactory function and esthetic appearance for penile reconstruction because of its adequate amount of tissue, reliable vascularity, acceptable donor-site morbidity, and reliable blood supply.

Twenty single-stage penile reconstructions were performed with scapular free flaps with implanted malleable prostheses. Total flap survival was achieved, and no urethral strictures or fistulae were seen.

From the Chinese Association of Plastic Surgery, Peking, China.

Received July 4, 2006, and accepted for publication, after revision, October 2, 2006.

Reprints: Mingyong Yang, MD, Department of Hypospadias and General Plastic Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Ba Da Chu Road, Shi Jing Shan District, Beijing 100041, People's Republic of China. E-mail:

© 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.