Original ArticleOptimization of 3-Dimensional Imaging of the Breast Region With 3-Dimensional Laser ScannersKovacs, Laszlo MD*; Yassouridis, Alexander‡; Zimmermann, Alexander MD*; Brockmann, Gernot MD*; Wöhnl, Antonia*; Blaschke, Matthias*; Eder, Maximilian*; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja MD§; Rosenberg, Robert PhD†; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A. PhD*; Biemer, Edgar PhD*Author Information From the *Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and †Department of Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar of the Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany; ‡Max-Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Work Group Statistics, Munich, Germany; and the §Department of Reconstructive Surgery, Division of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Received November 8, 2005 and accepted for publication November 9, 2005. Reprints: Laszlo Kovacs, MD, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar of the Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675 Munich, Germany. E-mail: [email protected]. Annals of Plastic Surgery: March 2006 - Volume 56 - Issue 3 - p 229-236 doi: 10.1097/01.sap.0000197774.80832.24 Buy Metrics AbstractIn Brief The anatomic conditions of the female breast require imaging the breast region 3-dimensionally in a normal standing position for quality assurance and for surgery planning or surgery simulation. The goal of this work was to optimize the imaging technology for the mammary region with a 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner, to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the method, and to allow optimum data reproducibility. Avoiding the influence of biotic factors, such as mobility, we tested the most favorable imaging technology on dummy models for scanner-related factors such as the scanner position in comparison with the torso and the number of scanners and single shots. The influence of different factors of the breast region, such as different breast shapes or premarking of anatomic landmarks, was also first investigated on dummies. The findings from the dummy models were then compared with investigations on test persons, and the accuracy of measurements on the virtual models was compared with a coincidence analysis of the manually measured values. The best precision and accuracy of breast region measurements were achieved when landmarks were marked before taking the shots and when shots at 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, relative to the sagittal line, were taken with 2 connected scanners mounted with a +10-degree upward angle. However, the precision of the measurements on test persons was significantly lower than those measured on dummies. Our findings show that the correct settings for 3D imaging of the breast region with a laser scanner can achieve an acceptable degree of accuracy and reproducibility. Optimal 3-D laser scanning of the breast was achieved using 2 connected scanners positioned at a 30° angle from the sagittal plane of each breast and at a 10° upward angle. © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.