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Osteogenic Potential of Primed Periosteum Graft in the Rat Calvarial Model

Kanou, Miwa DDS; Ueno, Takaaki DDS, PhD; Kagawa, Toshimasa DDS, PhD; Fujii, Takashi DDS; Sakata, Yoshiro DDS; Ishida, Nobuhisa DDS; Fukunaga, Joji DDS, PhD; Sugahara, Toshio DDS, PhD

doi: 10.1097/
Original Article

Repair of bone defects remains a major concern in plastic and maxillofacial surgery. Based on modern concepts of tissue engineering, periosteum has gained attention as a suitable osteogenic material. We tested the hypothesis that surgically released and immediately repositioned periosteum would exhibit high osteogenic capacity upon grafting in a rat calvarial defect. Seven days after periosteum was released from the tibia and immediately repositioned, the “primed periosteum graft” (PPG; n = 15) was placed into a critical-sized defect of rat calvaria and the process of bone formation was evaluated histologically, immunohistologically, and radiographically at 7, 14, and 21 days after grafting. Findings were compared with a nonprimed periosteal graft (NPG; n = 15).

Endochondral ossification was observed in both the PPG and NPG. The PPG showed higher expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen, bone morphogenetic protein, and vascular endothelial growth factor than the NPG. Three-dimensional radiographic examination revealed significantly increased bone formation in the PPG than in the NPG (P < 0.01). These findings suggested that surgical stimulation of the periosteum enhanced the osteogenic potential of periosteal cells. This method may be suitable for the clinical repair of bone defects.

In a rat calvarial defect model, “priming” a tibial periosteal graft by elevation and repositioning seven days prior to transfer resulted in increased bone formation and cytokine production after placement into the calvarial defect in comparison with non-primed grafts.

From the Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan.

Received December 29, 2003 and accepted for publication, after revision, June 9, 2004.

Reprints: Miwa Kanou, DDS, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2-5-1 Shikata, Okayama 7008525, Japan. E-mail:

© 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.