A prospective developmental assessment was performed on 26 patients operated on with dynamic cranioplasty for sagittal synostosis. Because this technique entails the application of compressive force, it was of great concern to assess the effect of surgery on development and mental status. The surgical technique used was a modified π procedure. Perioperative variables were recorded. Six patients underwent preoperative intracranial pressure (ICP) measurements. To evaluate objectively the developmental outcome, the Griffiths’ Mental Development Scales was used for analysis before and after surgery. A parental questionnaire was used for subjective outcome measurement. Preoperative ICP recordings during sleep ranged from 12.8 to 22.8 mmHg (mean, 16.1 mmHg). The mean age at the time for surgery was 6.9 months (range, 4–16 months; standard deviation [SD], 2.32 months). The surgical technique included shortening of the anteroposterior diameter of the skull by a mean of 16.6 mm. The mean global development quotient (GDQ) preoperatively was 104.5 (range, 82–144; SD, 12.4) and the mean GDQ postoperatively was 101.4 (range, 62–129; SD, 13.6). Mean age at follow-up was 16.3 months (range, 9–40 months; SD, 4.04 months). There was no significant correlation between the amount of intraoperative shortening and mental development. In comparison of means, the GDQ preoperatively did not differ significantly from the GDQ postoperatively. The modified π procedure is safe and efficient. When surgery was performed before 1 year of age, no significant (p = 0.33) effect on mental development-either detrimental or beneficial-was demonstrated.