The principles of neurocutaneous flaps, first described by Masquelet in 1992, represented a new concept in skin vascularization. The distally based superficial sural artery flap is an example of this kind of flap, which is supplied by the vascular axis that accompanies the sural nerve. The authors treated 36 patients with 36 distally based superficial sural artery flaps. All flaps survived, but six of them exhibited partial necrosis. No patient experienced anesthesia of the lateral side of the foot or neuroma at the donor site 12 months after surgery. The authors confirmed that this flap is very useful for soft-tissue reconstruction of the distal third of the leg and foot. Additionally they conclude that the principal advantages are that the blood supply is reliable, execution is easy and fast, the operation can be performed under regional anesthesia, the flap has a large arc of rotation, direct closure of the donor area is possible for small flaps, major arteries or nerves are not sacrificed, and excellent durability is achieved, even on weight-bearing areas. The major drawback is the donor site scar.