This paper reports the results of a series of 5 patients who underwent closure of persistent bronchopleural fistula using extrathoracic muscle flaps over a 6-year period. All patients had failed more conservative treatment. The surgeries were one- or two-stage procedures performed with the collaboration of cardiovascular and reconstructive surgical staffs. There were no associated mortalities. The muscle flaps utilized were the latissimus dorsi, serratus anterior, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, and trapezius. The results have been encouraging and allowed the complete closure of the bronchopleural fistula in the majority of patients. The authors present the best management of this serious disease, as well as its pathophysiology and clinical aspects.