We retrospectively reviewed our experience with immediate breast reconstruction in 103 consecutive patients with stage 0 or I breast carcinoma between May 1983 and April 1988. Two reconstructive techniques were used, that is, either tissue expansion with secondary prosthesis implantation (60%) or transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap (40%). Chemotherapy was administered in 22% of patients without delay or compromise. The mean length of follow-up is 30 months. The comphcation rate was equal for both groups (24%) with infection being most common in the group of patients with tissue expansion and partial flap necrosis being most common in the group of patients with TRAM flaps. Aesthetic results were superior with use of the TRAM flap. Our experience concurs with previous reports that documented satisfactory results with immediate breast reconstruction without compromising further therapy. We conclude that although the tissue expansion technique yields acceptable results, the TRAM flap yields superior aesthetic results in terms of both appearance and consistency.