A case report of a systemic, near-fatal illness possibly related to augmentation mammaplasty with silicons gel prostheses is presented. Twenty-four hours after the augmentation procedure, the patient, a 32-year-old woman, developed a high fever followed by diffuse arthritis, renal failure, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Shortly after removal of the prostheses, the patient's condition improved dramatically. Samples from blood, urine, sputum, and breast pockets collected at the time of prosthesis removal demonstrated silicone polymers. Evidence is presented that indicates the illness was not of infectious origin.
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