*Department of Surgery, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan
†Center for Healthcare Outcomes and Policy, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan
‡Michigan Opioid Prescribing and Engagement Network, Institute for Healthcare Policy and innovation, Ann Arbor, Michigan
§Department of Anesthesiology, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan
¶Department of Pediatrics, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
RH receives funding for research from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (5T32DK108740-05). CSB is supported by the Ruth L. Kirschstein Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Award administered by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (F32-DA050416). YL and VG have no disclosures. CB, ME, JW, and MB receive funding from the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01DA042859). Dr. Bicket reports past consultation with Axial Healthcare and Alosa Health not related to this work. No funder or sponsor had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication. YL and VG had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
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