*University Medical Center Utrecht, University Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
†University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
‡ZGTAlmelo, Almelo, The Netherlands
§Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linko, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
∥University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
¶University Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA
#University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
**The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Division of Upper GI and Metabolic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong
††Montpellier Cancer Institute, Montpellier, France
‡‡Universitätsklinikum Münster, Münster, Germany
§§University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
∥∥Universitätsklinikum Kiel, Kiel, Germany
¶¶University Hospital Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany
##Amsterdam UMC Cancer Center Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
***University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
†††Virginia Mason Hospital, Seattle, WA
‡‡‡Charite University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
§§§Lancashire Teaching Hospitals, Preston, UK
∥∥∥The Royal Marsden, London, UK
¶¶¶Città della Salute e della Scienza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Turin, Italy
The principal investigator of this study was R.v.H. The coordinating investigator was F.K., who was also responsible for the analyses of this study. By means of repeated face-to-face Upper GI International Robotic Association meetings and continuous digital interaction, all other authors contributed this work by: 1) substantial contributions, the acquisition and interpretation of data; 2) participation in drafting the article and revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published.
An Intuitive Clinical Research Grant was received in 2018 to support this research. Intuitive Surgical Inc (Sunnyvale, CA) had no role in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data. R.v.H., J.R., P.G., J.H., M.v.D., and E.K. are proctors for surgeons who are implementing RAMIE, which is coordinated through Intuitive Surgical Inc.
The authors report no conflicts of interest.