The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of medical and surgical treatments of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on patient-reported outcomes (PROs).
Robust data on PROs from randomized trials comparing medical and surgical treatments for T2DM are lacking.
The Surgical Treatment And Medications Potentially Eradicate Diabetes Efficiently (STAMPEDE) trial showed that 5 years after randomization, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were superior to intensive medical therapy (IMT) alone in achieving glycemic control in patients with T2DM and obesity. A subset of 104 patients participating in the STAMPEDE trial were administered two generic health-related quality of life (QoL) questionnaires (RAND-36 and EQ-5D-3L) and a diabetes-specific instrument at baseline, and then on an annual basis up to 5 years after randomization.
On longitudinal analysis, RYGB and SG significantly improved the domains of physical functioning, general health perception, energy/fatigue, and diabetes-related QoL compared with IMT group. In the IMT group, none of the QoL components in the generic questionnaires improved significantly from baseline. No significant long-term differences were observed among the study groups in measures of psychological and social aspects of QoL. On multivariable analysis, independent factors associated with improved general health perception at long-term included baseline general health (P < 0.001), insulin independence at 5 years (P = 0.005), RYGB versus IMT (P = 0.005), and SG versus IMT (P = 0.034). Favorable changes following RYGB and SG were comparable.
In patients with T2DM, metabolic surgery is associated with long-term favorable changes in certain PROs compared with IMT, mainly on physical health and diabetes-related domains. Psychosocial well-being warrants greater attention after metabolic surgery.