*The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
†Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
‡Division of Pediatric Surgery Professor Emeritus Surgery, Pediatrics, OB-GYN, Reproductive Sciences University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California
§University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California
¶University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
||Stanford University, Stanford, California.
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
E. Christopher Ellison: Original Contributions McGraw-Hill Medical and Wolters Kluwer, received royalties. Michael R. Harrison: Founder of Magnets-in-Me Inc, Magnamosis Inc., Magnap Inc., received Equity, no compensation.
Challenges to Surgical Innovation
American Surgical Association Forum 139th Annual Meeting, April 12, 2019