*Section of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor
†Michigan Opioid Prescribing Engagement Network, Institute for Health Care Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor
‡Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor
§Department of Pediatrics, Susan B. Meister Child Health Evaluation and Research Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor
∥Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor
Funding for the IQVIA data was supported by a grant from the Benter Foundation (grant number 2020-02), the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, and the Susan B. Meister Child Health Evaluation and Research Center at the University of Michigan Medical School. Dr Waljee and Dr Chua are supported by an award from the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute for Drug Abuse (R01DA057284-01). Dr Chua is supported by a career development award from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (grant number 1K08DA048110-01).
J.F.W., V.G., M.C.B., C.M.B., and K.P.C.: study concept and design, analysis and interpretation of data, and critical revision of the manuscript. K.P.C.: acquisition of data. J.F.W and K.P.C.: drafting of the manuscript and study supervision. V.G. and K.P.C.: statistical analysis.
K.P.C. and C.M.B. report receiving honoraria from the Benter Foundation for work outside the current manuscript. C.M.B. also reports providing expert testimony and serving as a consultant for Heron Therapeutics, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, and Alosa Health. M.C.B. reports past consultations with Axial Health Care and Alosa Health not related to this work. The remaining authors report no conflicts of interest.
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