*Section of Pediatric Surgery CS Mott Children’s Hospital University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
†Department of Surgery and Pediatrics, University of Vermont Medical Center and Children’s Hospital, Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT
‡Children’s Hospital Association, Lenexa, KS
§Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston, SC
∥UCLA-Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
¶Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
#Department of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA
**Department of Pediatrics, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL
††Departments of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA
‡‡Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hospital Medicine, Children’s Mercy Hospitals, Kansas City, MO
§§Department of Pediatrics, Children’s National Hospital, George Washington University, Washington, DC
∥∥Department of Emergency Medicine and the Comprehensive Injury Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI
All Authors reviewed all the drafts of the manuscript. P.F.E.: study chair, corresponding author, developed hypotheses, data analysis, primary author, and FACTS member. C.D.P. analysis and interpretation of data. H.G.D.S.: statistician, data acquisition, and editor of manuscript. M.H.: statistician, data acquisition, and editor of manuscript. A.A.: analyzed and acquired data and edited the paper. B.T.Z.: psychiatrist and expert in mental health edited paper. J.A.F.: developed study criteria, edited paper. S.C.: data acquisition and editor of manuscript. J.A.H.: data acquisition and editor of manuscript. E.W.F.: developed study criteria, edited paper. K.N.J.: data analysis and editing. M.K.G.: assisted in concept development and proposal, study design and FACT member. S.H.: assisted in concept development and proposal study design and FACT member, cosenior author. E.R.A.: assisted in concept development and primary paper editor proposal study design and FACT member, cosenior author.
Stephen Hargarten and Elizabeth R. Alpern are cosenior authors.
This work has been partially supported by The FACTS (Firearm safety Among Children & Teens)/Building Research Capacity for Firearm Safety Among Children Consortium grant NICHD, 1R24HD087149. JAH is currently receiving grants from the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (5K12HS026385-03).
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
Supplemental Digital Content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website, www.annalsofsurgery.com.