To determine whether patients with CKD experience higher rates of perioperative complications after RYGB compared to sleeve gastrectomy.
Summary of Background Data:
For obese CKD patients who qualify for bariatric surgery, sleeve gastrectomy is often preferred to RYGB based on perceptions of prohibitively-high perioperative risks surrounding RYGB. However, some patients with CKD are not candidates for sleeve gastrectomy and the incremental increased-risk from RYGB has never been rigorously tested in this population.
CKD patients who underwent RYGB or sleeve gastrectomy between 2015 and 2017 were identified from the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program Participant Use File. RYGB patients were 1:1 propensity-score matched with sleeve gastrectomy patients based on preoperative factors that influence operative choice. Primary outcomes included 30-day readmissions, surgical complications, medical complications, and death. Secondary outcomes included the individual complications used to create the composite surgical/medical complications. Univariate logistic regression was used to compare outcomes. E-value statistic was used to test the strength of outcome point estimates against possible unmeasured confounding.
Demographics were similar between RYGB (n = 673) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 673) cohorts. There were no statistically significant differences in primary outcomes. Among secondary outcomes, only acute kidney injury was statistically-significantly higher among RYGB patients (4.9% vs 2.7%, P = 0.035, E-value 1.27).
Among well-matched cohorts of RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy patients, incidence of primary outcomes were similar. Among secondary outcomes, only acute kidney injury was statistically-significantly higher among RYGB patients; however, the E-value for this difference was small and relatively weak confounder(s) could abrogate the statistical difference. The perception that RYGB has prohibitively-high perioperative risks among CKD patients is disputable and operative selection should be weighed on patient candidacy and anticipated long-term benefit.