Pressure injury is seen across all healthcare settings and affects people of any age and health condition. It imposes a significant burden, with annual costs of up to $17.8 billion in the United States alone. Despite considerable resources it exhausts, the disease remains very prevalent, and the incidence is on the rise. This is in part due to aging population, growing number of nursing home residents, poorly understood biology, and dismal track record of clinical research in this field.
In our Review Article, we discuss the disease pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, evidence based recommendations for risk assessment, prevention and timely management, existing challenges, and directions to improve research on the field. This article encompasses dedicated sections on the full spectrum of the pressure related pathologies including “conventional pressure ulcers”, “medical device related pressure injuries”, “pressure injuries in mucosal membranes”, “pressure injuries in pediatric population”, “pressure injury at end of life”, and the “role of pressure in pathogenesis of diabetic foot ulcers”.