To assess the impact of somatic gene mutations on survival among patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM).
Patients undergoing CLM resection have heterogeneous outcomes, and accurate risk stratification is necessary to optimize patient selection for surgery.
Next-generation sequencing of 50 cancer-related genes was performed from primary tumors and/or liver metastases in 401 patients undergoing CLM resection. Missense TP53 mutations were classified by the evolutionary action score (EAp53)—a novel approach that dichotomizes mutations as low or high risk.
The most frequent somatic gene mutations were TP53 (65.6%), followed by KRAS (48.1%) and APC (47.4%). Double mutation in RAS/TP53, identified in 31.4% of patients, was correlated with primary tumor location in the right colon (P = 0.006). On multivariable analysis, RAS/TP53 double mutation was an independent predictor of shorter overall survival (hazard ratio 2.62, 95% confidence interval 1.41–4.87, P = 0.002). In patients with co-mutated RAS, EAp53 high-risk mutations were associated with shorter 5-year overall survival of 12.2%, compared with 55.7% for TP53 wild type (P < 0.001). The negative prognostic effects of RAS and TP53 mutations were limited to tumors harboring mutations in both genes.
Concomitant RAS and TP53 mutations are associated with decreased survival after CLM resection. A high EAp53 predicts a subset of patients with worse prognosis. These preliminary analyses suggest that surgical resection of liver metastases should be carefully considered in this subset of patients.