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A Comparison of the Learning Curves of Laparoscopic Liver Surgeons in Differing Stages of the IDEAL Paradigm of Surgical Innovation

Standing on the Shoulders of Pioneers

Halls, Mark Christopher MBBS*; Alseidi, Adnan MD; Berardi, Giammauro MD; Cipriani, Federica MD§; Van der Poel, Marcel MD; Davila, Diego MD||; Ciria, Ruben PhD**; Besselink, Marc PhD; D’Hondt, Mathieu MD††; Dagher, Ibrahim PhD‡‡; Alrdrighetti, Luca PhD§; Troisi, Roberto Ivan PhD‡,§§; Abu Hilal, Mohammad MD, PhD, DocEur, FRCS, FACS*

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doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002996
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