FEATURESSimulation Research in Gastrointestinal and Urologic Care—Challenges and Opportunities Summary of a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering WorkshopAggarwal, Rajesh MBBS, MA, PhD*; Brown, Kimberly M. MD†; de Groen, Piet C. MD‡; Gallagher, Anthony G. PhD, DSc§; Henriksen, Kerm PhD¶; Kavoussi, Louis R. MD||; Peng, Grace C. Y. PhD**; Ritter, E. Matthew MD††; Silverman, Elliott PA-C, MSHS‡‡; Wang, Kenneth K. MD§§; Andersen, Dana K. MD¶¶Author Information *Department of Surgery and Steinberg Center for Simulation and Interactive Learning, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada †Department of Surgery and Perioperative Care, Dell Medical School, University of Texas, Austin, TX ‡Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN §ASSERT Center, College of Medicine and Health, University College Cork, Ireland, and Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, Ulster University, Belfast, UK ¶Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD ||Department of Urology, Northwell Hofstra School of Medicine, Nassau, NY **National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD ††Department of Surgery, Uniformed Services University for the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD ‡‡Department of Surgery, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA §§Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Mayo School of Medicine, Rochester, MN ¶¶Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Reprints: Dana K. Andersen, MD, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, 6th Floor, Bethesda, MD 20892. E-mail: [email protected]. RA is a consultant for Applied Medical. RA acknowledges support from the following: Honourable Hartland Molson Fellowship, Montreal General Hospital Foundation, The Chercheurs-boursiers cliniciens Junior 2, Fonds du Recherche Sante’ Quebec, and the Blema and Arnold Steinberg Foundation. No conflicts of interest are claimed by the authors. This article was co-published with The Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. Annals of Surgery: January 2018 - Volume 267 - Issue 1 - p 26-34 doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002228 Buy Metrics Abstract A workshop on “Simulation Research in Gastrointestinal and Urologic Care: Challenges and Opportunities” was held at the National Institutes of Health in June 2016. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the extent to which simulation approaches have been used by skilled proceduralists (not trainees) caring for patients with gastrointestinal and urologic diseases. The current status of research findings in the use and effectiveness of simulation applications was reviewed, and numerous knowledge gaps and research needs were identified by the faculty and the attendees. The paradigm of “deliberate practice,” rather than mere repetition, and the value of coaching by experts was stressed by those who have adopted simulation in music and sports. Models that are most useful for the adoption of simulation by expert clinicians have yet to be fully validated. Initial studies on the impact of simulation on safety and error reduction have demonstrated its value in the training domain, but the role of simulation as a strategy for increased procedural safety remains uncertain in the world of the expert practitioner. Although the basic requirements for experienced physicians to acquire new skills have been explored, the widespread availability of such resources is an unrealized goal, and there is a need for well-designed outcome studies to establish the role of simulation in improving the quality of health care. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.