To determine the survival benefit of kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Summary Background Data:
Although kidney transplantation (KT) has emerged as a viable option for select HIV-infected patients, concerns have been raised that risks of KT in HIV-infected patients are higher than those in their HIV-negative counterparts. Despite these increased risks, KT may provide survival benefit for the HIV-infected patient with ESRD, yet this important clinical question remains unanswered.
Data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients were linked to IMS pharmacy fills (January 1, 2001 to October 1, 2012) to identify and study 1431 HIV-infected KT candidates from the first point of active status on the waiting list. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to establish a counterfactual framework for estimating survival benefit of KT.
Adjusted relative risk (aRR) of mortality at 5 years was 79% lower after KT compared with dialysis (aRR 0.21; 95% CI 0.10–0.42; P <0.001), and statistically significant survival benefit was achieved by 194 days of KT. Among patients coinfected with hepatitis C, aRR of mortality at 5 years was 91% lower after KT compared with dialysis (aRR 0.09; 95% CI 0.02–0.46; P < 0.004); however, statistically significant survival benefit was not achieved until 392 days after KT.
Evidence suggests that for HIV-infected ESRD patients, KT is associated with a significant survival benefit compared with remaining on dialysis.