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Missed Opportunity: Laparoscopic Colorectal Resection Is Associated With Lower Incidence of Small Bowel Obstruction Compared to an Open Approach

Aquina, Christopher T. MD; Probst, Christian P. MD; Becerra, Adan Z. BA; Iannuzzi, James C. MD, MPH; Hensley, Bradley J. MD, MBA; Noyes, Katia PhD, MPH; Monson, John R.T. MD; Fleming, Fergal J. MD

doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001389
ORIGINAL ARTICLES

Objective: To investigate the effect of a laparoscopic approach on the rate of adhesion-related small bowel obstruction (SBO) following colorectal resection.

Background: Currently, there is little compelling evidence with regard to rates of SBO after laparoscopic versus open abdominal surgery. Few studies have compared risk-adjusted rates of SBO following laparoscopic and open colorectal resection.

Methods: The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System was queried for elective colorectal resections in New York State from 2003 to 2010. A propensity score was calculated to account for selection bias between choice of laparoscopic versus open resection. Bivariate and multivariable competing-risks models were constructed to assess patient, hospital, surgeon, and operative characteristics associated with SBO and operation for SBO within 3 years of resection.

Results: Among 69,303 patients who underwent elective colorectal resection (26% laparoscopic, 74% open), 5.3% of patients developed SBO and 2% of patients underwent an operation for SBO. After controlling for other risk factors and conducting an intention-to-treat analysis, open resection was associated with a higher risk of both SBO [hazard ratio (HR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.26] and operation for SBO (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.94–1.32). This effect was even greater when characterizing laparoscopic-to-open conversions as an open approach (SBO: HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.20–1.49; SBO operation: HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.12–1.63). Most other independent risk factors were nonmodifiable and included age <60, female sex, black race, higher comorbidity burden, previous surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, and procedure type.

Conclusions: Open colorectal resection increases the risk of SBO compared with laparoscopy. Increased utilization of a laparoscopic approach has the potential to achieve a significant reduction in the incidence of SBO following colorectal resection.

Department of Surgery, Surgical Health Outcomes and Research Enterprise (S.H.O.R.E.), University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY.

Reprints: Christopher T. Aquina, MD, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave., Box SURG, Rochester, NY 14642. E-mail: christopher_aquina@urmc.rochester.edu.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.