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Reasons to Publish with Anesthesiology

  • The highest ranking (Impact Factor: 6.168) among anesthesiology journals
  • Enhanced publication services:
    – Average time to first decision <4 weeks
    – No page charges
    – Rapid publish-ahead-of-print feature
    – Free color figures
    – Professional artist service and copy editing
    – Active press release program
    – Dedicated statistical editor
    – iPad app
  • Frequent editorials to highlight important papers
  • Special topical issues to highlight specific areas of research


Complete Instructions for Authors

Before submitting a manuscript to Anesthesiology, please read these Instructions carefully. Each author on a manuscript submission is required to understand the material below.

Manuscripts must be submitted electronically via the Journal's online submission system ( For problems with submissions, contact the editorial office ([email protected]). Receipt will be acknowledged by e-mail. All decisions should be completed within 6 weeks, except for Review Articles, which may take up to 8 weeks. Authors will be contacted if delays occur.

Anesthesiology uses Crosscheck plagiarism detection software.

Manuscript status inquiries can be handled via our Editorial Manager Web site ( Information will not be provided by telephone, fax, or e-mail.

Submit only one copy of electronic manuscripts. Do not use multiple routes of submission; e.g., do not submit a manuscript via the Web and simultaneously via e-mail.

If there are any questions concerning these Instructions, please contact the Editorial Office.

Table of Contents:

  1. General Editorial, Ethical and Legal Issues
    1. Authorship
    2. Duplicate, Prior or Divided Publications
    3. Human Studies: IRB Approval and Consent
    4. Animal Studies: Animal Care Approval
    5. Conflicts of Interest
    6. Compliance with NIH and Other Research Funding Agency Accessibility Requirements
    7. Study Design Issues
      1. Clinical Trials
      2. Surveys
      3. Registration of Clinical Trials
  2. Types of Papers
    1. Original Investigations
    2. Review Articles
    3. Special Articles
    4. Clinical Concepts and Commentary (CCC) Articles
    5. Correspondence
    6. Mind to Mind
    7. Clinical Practice Guidelines
    8. Images in Anesthesiology (IiA)
    9. Other Items
  3. Manuscript Preparation
    1. General Arrangement Information on electronic documents
    2. Cover Letter
    3. Title Page
    4. Abstract (when required)
    5. Body Text
    6. References
    7. Tables
    8. Appendices
    9. Figure Legends
    10. Figures
      1. Color Images
      2. Preparation of Electronic Figures
      3. Journal Cover Figures
    11. Manuscripts "In Press"
    12. Supplemental Digital Content
    13. Additional Information
      1. Units of Measurement
      2. Abbreviations
      3. Drug Names and Equipment
      4. Patient Identification
    14. Permissions
    15. Language Editing Services
  4. Submission of Electronic Documents
    1. File Formats, Text
    2. File Formats, Fonts
    3. File Formats, Graphics and Images
    4. File Sizes

  1. General Editorial, Legal and Ethical Issues
    1. Authorship
      Each manuscript must have a "Corresponding Author." However, all authors must have participated in the design, execution, and/or analysis of the work presented, and attest to the accuracy and validity of the contents. All persons or organizations involved in the work must be listed as authors or acknowledged. All group authors must be entered into Editorial Manager to verify their authorship and must sign the copyright transfer agreement at acceptance. Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they have been written by the authors; ghostwritten papers are unacceptable. See Cullen D: Ghostwriting in scientific anesthesia journals. Anesthesiology 1997; 87: 195-6.
    2. Duplicate, Prior or Divided Publication
      It is improper for authors to submit a manuscript describing essentially the same research simultaneously to more than one peer-reviewed research journal. To do otherwise is to overuse valuable editorial and reviewing time. It also risks the possibility of duplicate publication. Submitted manuscripts must not have been published elsewhere, in whole or in part, on paper or electronically. This includes personal, departmental, educational or other Web sites, such as Nature Precedings ( This does not apply to abstracts of scientific meetings, or to lecture handouts (e.g., ASA Annual Meeting). Anesthesiology discourages authors from dividing the results of a single study into multiple papers. Do not submit several small manuscripts; a single comprehensive paper is preferable. If the authors believe that subdivision is appropriate, or if multiple articles may result from the same study, contact the Editor-in-Chief. The Editor-in-Chief must be notified if another manuscript derived from the same experiment has been published previously, or has been submitted to another journal.
    3. Human Studies
      Human experimentation must conform to ethical standards, and be approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB). A statement concerning IRB approval and consent procedures must appear at the beginning of the Methods section. Any systematic data gathering effort in patients or volunteers must be approved by an IRB or adhere to appropriate local/national regulations. The Editors of Anesthesiology are concerned about appropriate IRB review and informed consent. Authors may be questioned about the details of consent forms or the consent process. On occasion, the Editor-in-Chief may request a copy of the approved IRB application from the author. Lack of appropriate consent or documentation may be grounds for rejection. Local IRB approval does not guarantee acceptability; the final decision will be made by the Editor-in-Chief. A specific example is that of neuraxial or peri-neural administration of drugs, since lack of toxicity from systemic administration does not exclude toxicity when injected near these neural structures. The Editor-in-Chief will consider appropriate study of drugs by these routes to include:
      1. Drugs approved for intrathecal, epidural, or peri-neural administration by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the equivalent regulatory agency for the country in which the study took place.
      2. Drugs not approved by these routes, but which are widely used (e.g., fentanyl for intrathecal or epidural administration). The publication of dosing guidelines in multiple textbooks represents a reasonable demonstration that a drug is widely used and accepted.
      3. Study performed under an Investigational New Drug (IND) application approved by the FDA or the equivalent agency in the investigator's country. Investigators in the United States are directed to for further information on obtaining an investigator IND.
    4. Animal Studies
      Experimental work on animals must conform to the guidelines laid out in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, which is available from the National Academy of Science; a text-only version is available at Adherence to all relevant regulations and/or approval of the appropriate institutional Animal Care Committee or governmental licensure of the investigator and/or laboratory must be obtained. A statement concerning such approval must be included at the beginning of the Methods section. The Editors of Anesthesiology are concerned about appropriate animal care. Authors may be questioned regarding the use of anesthetics, muscle relaxants, and postoperative analgesics. On occasion, the Editor-in-Chief may request a copy of the approved Animal Care Committee application from the author. Major issues are a) the postoperative use of analgesics following surgical procedures, and b) the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs, particularly in minimally sedated animals. Local committee approval does not guarantee acceptability; the final decision will be made by the Editor-in-Chief. Investigators are encouraged to read the following Editorial: Drummond JC, Todd MM, Saidman LJ: Use of neuromuscular blocking drugs in scientific investigations involving animal subjects: The benefit of the doubt goes to the animal. Anesthesiology 1996; 85: 697-9.
    5. Conflicts of Interest and Sponsorship
      The Editors of Anesthesiology are concerned about any real or perceived conflicts of interest. Authors must define all funding sources supporting their work or its authors, even if support is indirect, e.g., to a local research foundation that funded the project. This includes departmental, hospital, or institutional funds. The authors must disclose commercial associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the work submitted. Consultancies, equity interests, or patent-licensing arrangements should also be noted at submission. A more detailed description of various conflicts can be found in the Cover Letter which must accompany all submissions. For further information, see Todd MM, Saidman LJ: Academic-industrial relationships: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Anesthesiology 1997; 87: 197-200.
    6. Compliance with NIH and Other Research Funding Agency Accessibility Requirements
      A number of research funding agencies now require or request authors to submit the post-print (the article after peer review and acceptance but not the final published article) to a repository that is accessible online by all without charge. As a service to Anesthesiology's authors, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins will identify to the National Library of Medicine (NLM) articles that require deposit and will transmit the post-print of an article based on research funded in whole or in part by the National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, or other funding agencies to PubMed Central. The Copyright Transfer Agreement provides the mechanism.
    7. Study Design Issues:
      Clinical Trials and Surveys
      1. Clinical Trials: Authors of clinical trials (regardless of size) should consult the guidelines published by the CONSORT group [Moher D, et al for the CONSORT Group: The CONSORT statement: Revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. JAMA 2001; 285:1987-91 at] and the following editorial: Todd MM: Clinical research manuscripts in Anesthesiology. Anesthesiology 2001; 95: 1051-1053.
      2. Surveys: Anesthesiology welcomes papers based on well done surveys. However, the quality of the survey methodology is often a factor in the Editor-in-Chief's decision. Interested authors should review the material contained in the following editorial: Burmeister LF. Principles of Successful Sample Surveys, Anesthesiology 2003; 99: 1251-1252.
      3. Registration of Clinical Trials: All clinical trials involving assignment of patients to treatment groups must be registered prior to patient enrollment, effective with trials beginning May 1, 2013. For trials that began enrollment before May 1, 2013, registration is strongly recommended and if the trial reported was not registered, please comment on this matter in the covering letter. The registry, registration number, principal investigator's name, and date of registration must be stated in the first paragraph of the Methods section of the manuscript. A number of registries have been approved by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( including (the most commonly used registry in the United States),,,, and Submissions that have registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, EudraCT (, meet this requirement. 
  2. Types of Papers
    Case reports and correspondence describing cases will not be accepted for review (see Eisenach JC: Case reports are leaving Anesthesiology, but not the specialty. Anesthesiology 2013; 118:479). If in doubt regarding the suitability of a submission, please contact the Editorial Office.
    1. Original Investigations. These articles focus on the four central aspects of the medical specialty of anesthesiology: perioperative medicine, critical care medicine, pain medicine, and education. Although there is overlap, authors will choose one of these areas during the submission process. These articles all range in length from 1,500 to 4,000 words. Abbreviated Titles and Abstracts are required (see the section on Manuscript Preparation below). Do not include a summary statement.
    2. Review Articles. Review Articles are comprehensive papers that synthesize older ideas and suggest new ones. They cover broad areas. They may be clinical, investigational, or basic science in nature. They may range in length from 2,000 to 8,000 words. Instead of a structured abstract, provide a 150 word, one or two paragraph summary of the key points of the article, along with Abbreviated Title and a short Summary Statement (see the section on Manuscript Preparation below). Meta-analyses are not considered Review Articles, require a structured abstract (see Abstract section, below) and should be submitted to the appropriate section (Perioperative Medicine Investigations, Critical Care Medicine Investigations, or Pain Medicine).
    3. Special Articles. Articles that do not readily fall into the above categories may be published as Special Articles (e.g., history, education, demography, contemporary issues, etc.). Abstracts, Abbreviated Titles and Summary Statements are required for all Special Articles except for Practice Guidelines (see the section on Manuscript Preparation below).
    4. Clinical Concepts and Commentary (CCC). These are brief reviews and commentary (2,000 to 3,000 words) focused on clinical topics. Do not submit Abstracts, but Abbreviated Titles and Summary Statements are required (see the section on Manuscript Preparation below). Individuals interested in writing such articles should contact the Editorial Office.

      We ask that articles emphasize the clinical aspects of the subject, be limited to approximately 2,500 words, and be accompanied by not more than 20 references. We seek to include two color illustrations (any combination of tables and/or figures to be determined by you) to enhance the effectiveness of the publication. Illustrations need only be in draft form. A professional artist will produce the final figures.

    5. Correspondence. Correspondence submissions are not to provide a venue for case reports, and authors must attest during the submission process that a case description is not included in correspondence. Letters-to-the-Editor should be brief (250 to 1,000 words). A few references, a small table, or a pertinent illustration may be used. They require a Cover Letter and an original title on a Title Page. Do not submit Abbreviated Titles, Summary Statements, and Abstracts. Letters may offer criticism of published material. They must be objective and constructive. Such letters must be received in the Editorial Office no later than three months after the appearance of the original article that is the subject of the commentary. Letters also may discuss matters of general interest to anesthesiologists, without specific linkage to recently published articles.
    6. Mind to Mind. Mind to Mind is a creative writing section devoted to exploring the abstract realm of our profession and our lives. Submitted works can be poetry, fiction, or creative nonfiction. Limit submissions to 1,200 words or less. Authors should be a current or emeritus member of the anesthesia, perioperative, critical care, or pain teams, including students, writing on any topic. Patients may submit writing about their medical experience. Entries may be published anonymously at the author’s request, though names and conflict of interest information are required during submission. All entries must respect complete confidentiality. Mind to Mind entries have a separate cover letter and separate full submission instructions:
      • Please click here to access the Mind to Mind Cover Letter.
      • Please click here to access the full Mind to Mind Submission Instructions.
    7. Practice Guidelines
      In general, published statements intended to guide clinical care (e.g., Guidelines, Practice Parameters, Recommendations, Consensus Statements, Position Papers) should describe:
      1. The clinical problem to be addressed;
      2. The mechanism by which the statement was generated;
      3. A review of the evidence for the statement (if available), and;
      4. The statement on practice itself.
      As more than one group or society may issue statements on the same topic, this often results in confusion amongst clinicians. To minimize confusion and to enhance transparency, such statements should begin with the following bulleted phrases, followed by brief comments addressing each phrase:
      • What other guideline statements are available on this topic?
      • Why was this guideline was developed?
      • How does this statement differ from existing guidelines?
      • Why does this statement differ from existing guidelines?
    8. Images in Anesthesiology (IiA). These succinct submissions couple an interesting, novel, or highly educational image with text designed to highlight the pertinent anesthesiology-focused information displayed by the visual. Supplemental video content can be included to expand the visual learning. The focus of an IiA submission is the image itself and key educational points raised in the body of the text should be directly related to observation of the image. The IiA section of the Journal is not intended to be used as a forum for case reports. IiA manuscripts are intended to educate medical students, residents, fellows, anesthesiology practitioners, and interested physicians and scientists. IiA manuscripts are limited to 250 words, should include 3 references, and must not have more than 4 authors. The image should be one frame that on occasion might have two coupled panels. Labeling of the image should focus attention to the intended educational message. Rather than including a legend for the image, its description should be incorporated into the body of the text.
    9. Other Items. Anesthesiology also publishes 1) Editorials, 2) Case Scenarios, 3) Classic Papers Revisited, and 4) Book Reviews. These are typically solicited. Please contact the Editorial Office for further information.
  3. Manuscript Preparation
    Manuscripts must be double-spaced. Fonts should be 10 point or larger. Margins should be at least 2.5 cm (1 in) all around. If a manuscript is formatted for A4 paper, leave at least a 5 cm (2 in) margin at the bottom of the page. Number pages consecutively beginning with the Title Page.
    1. General Arrangement, All Submissions:
      ALL articles should be arranged in the following order.
      1. Cover Letter
      2. Manuscript, as a single file, consisting of Title Page, Abstract (not required for all article types - see above), Body Text, References
      3. Tables (each Table should be a separate file)
      4. Appendices (each Appendix should be a separate file)
      5. Figure Legends (placed consecutively, in numerical order, all on the same page)
      6. Figures (each Figure should be a separate file)
      7. Manuscripts "In Press" Information on the preparation of electronic documents and Figures can be found at the end of this Guide.
    2. Cover Letter
      The corresponding author must provide a Cover Letter indicating that all authors acknowledge their familiarity with these Instructions and agree to the contents of the submitted paper. Conflict of Interest information must also be provided. A blank Cover Letter can be downloaded by clicking here.
    3. Title Page (Page 1)
      All submissions require a Title Page with the following materials.
      1. Article Title
      2. First name, middle initial, and last name of each author, with their highest academic degree (M.D., Ph.D., etc.), and institutional affiliations.
      3. Name, mailing address, phone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author.  
      4. Disclosure of funding received for the work from any of the following organizations: National Institutes of Health (NIH), Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), and all other financial support, including departmental or institutional funding. Comments such as "No Funding Received" are not acceptable. Provide both the name and location of each funding agency/source.
      5. Individuals or organizations to be acknowledged. Provide complete name, degrees, academic rank, department, institutional affiliation, city, state, and country.
      6. Number of words in Abstract, in Introduction, and in Discussion.
      7. An Abbreviated Title (running head) that states the essence of the article (< 50 characters). This is not required for all article types--see above.
      8. Brief (no more than 35 words) Summary Statement to be printed in the Table of Contents. This is not required for all article types--see above.
      9. Please list any conflicts of interest the authors have had within the 36 months of submission.
    4. Abstract (new page)
      When required, provide an Abstract of no more than 250 words. The abstract should contain four labeled paragraphs: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Review Articles, Special Articles, and History Articles (History Articles fall into the Special Articles category) require an unstructured, one or two paragraph summary of the key points of the article of 150 words or fewer. Meta-analyses are not considered Review Articles, require a structured abstract and should be submitted to the appropriate section (Perioperative Medicine Investigations, Critical Care Medicine Investigations, or Pain Medicine).
    5. Body Text
      The body of the manuscript should typically be divided into four parts (except for Correspondence):
      1. Introduction (new page, 500 word limit). This should rarely exceed one page in length.
      2. Materials and Methods (new page). A subsection entitled "Statistical Analysis" should appear at the end of the Materials and Methods section when appropriate (for comments re. Statistics, see below).
      3. Results (new page).
      4. Discussion (new page, 1,500 word limit). The discussion should focus on the findings in the current work.
    6. References (new page)
      Number references (as superscripts) in the sequence they appear in the text. Use abbreviated titles of the medical journals as they appear in Index Medicus (see Include only references accessible to all readers. Do not include articles published without peer review, or material appearing in programs of meetings or in organizational publications. Sites on the World Wide Web (URLs) may not be used as references, although they may occasionally be included as footnotes. Abstracts are acceptable as references only if published within the previous 3 years. Manuscripts in preparation or submitted for publication are never acceptable as references. If you cite accepted manuscripts "In Press" as references, please provide one electronic copy (e.g., Word, PDF) when you submit the new manuscript and mark them as "In Press, Reference # ___." Use the following reference formats:
      1. Journal: Carli F, Mayo N, Klubien K, Schricker T, Trudel J, Belliveau P: Epidural analgesia enhances functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life after colonic surgery: Results of a randomized trial. Anesthesiology 2002; 97:540-9
      2. Book: Barash PG, Cullen BF, Stoelting RK: Clinical Anesthesia, 3rd edition. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997, pp 23-4
      3. Chapter: Blitt C: Monitoring the anesthetized patient, Clinical Anesthesia, 3rd edition. Edited by Barash PG, Cullen BF, Stoelting RK. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997, pp 563-85
    7. Tables
      Number tables consecutively in order of appearance (Table 1, etc.). Each Table should be submitted as a separate file. Each table must have a title and a caption. Tables should be either word processed documents or spreadsheets. Do not submit tables as image files.
    8. Appendices
      Number each appendix and place after the tables and before the figure legends. Appendices should continue the same page number sequence as the body of the article. Each appendix must be cited within the text, in consecutive order. If there are more than one appendices, start each on a new page.
    9. Figure Legends
      Supply a legend for each figure; all legends should be grouped on a single page or series of pages separate from the figures.
    10. Figures
      Figures should be prepared according to the professional standards of this Journal. If a single figure contains more than one panel, each panel must be identified alphabetically (e.g., A, B, etc.) and should read left to right in presentation. The figures must be cited in the text in the same, consecutive numeric order. Each Figure should be submitted as a separate file, clearly labeled with the figure number (e.g., Figure1.tif, Figure2.eps, etc.). Note: Due to production requirements, differently formatted figures may be required for accepted articles.
      1. The Editor-In-Chief will determine if color is essential to convey the information in the figure. 
      2. Detailed directions regarding acceptable graphics formats can be found below.
      3. Journal Cover Figures
        Authors are invited to submit clinically or scientifically interesting and visually arresting cover images. Illustrations need not be reprinted in the article submission but should be representative of the work. Images should be original, and copyright will transfer to Anesthesiology. Include a brief lay-language caption (50-60 words) and credit information (e.g., Photograph courtesy of...). Images should be 20 cm wide by 20 cm high. Files should be EPS or TIFF and should be in CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) color mode. Cover figure files may be submitted online when the paper is submitted or may be sent by e-mail to [email protected] Send large files on CD-ROM by courier to the Anesthesiology Editorial Office. Submissions provided outside the online submission system should include manuscript number, author name, phone, and e-mail. Illustrations will not be returned unless requested.
    11. Manuscripts "In Press"
      Please submit an electronic copy (Word, PDF) of any "In Press" manuscript that is cited in the reference list, labeled as "In Press, Reference # ___."
    12. Supplemental Digital Content
       Authors may submit supplemental digital content to enhance their article's text and to be considered for online-only posting. Supplemental digital content may include the following types of content: text documents, graphs, tables, figures, audio, and video. Cite all supplemental digital content consecutively in the text.

      Citations should include the type of material submitted, should be clearly labeled as "Supplemental Digital Content," should include a sequential number, and should provide a brief description of the supplemental content. For example: “See table, Supplemental Digital Content 1, which is a table listing all medications used in this study.” Each supplemental digital content file must be composed to stand alone. For example, tables and figures must include titles, legends, and/or footnotes, following journal style, so the viewer can fully understand the supplemental content on its own. Production will not make any edits to the supplemental files; they will be presented as submitted.

      For audio and video files, enter the author name, videographer, participants, length (minutes), and size (MB) of file in Editorial Manager. Authors should mask patients’ eyes and remove patients’ names from supplemental digital content unless they obtain written consent from the patients and submit written consent with the manuscript. Copyright for video or audio supplemental digital content will be required upon acceptance.
      For a list of acceptable file types and size limits, please review LWW's requirements for submitting supplemental digital content:
    13. Additional Information
      1. Units of Measurement
        Use metric units. The units for pressures are mmHg or cmH2O. Diagonal slashes are acceptable for simple units, e.g., mg/kg; when more than two items are present, negative exponents should be used, i.e., ml · kg-1 · min-1 instead of ml/kg/min.
      2. Abbreviations
        Define all abbreviations except those approved by the International System of Units for length, mass, time, temperature, amount of substance, etc. Do not create new abbreviations for drugs, procedures, experimental groups, etc.
      3. Drug Names and Equipment
        Use generic names. If a brand name must be used, insert it in parentheses after the generic name. Provide manufacturer's name, city, state, and country. Be careful about the use of trademarked terms (e.g., ThrombelastographyTM, TEGTM, etc.).
      4. Statistics
        Detailed statistical methodology must be reported. Describe randomization procedures and the specific tests used to examine each part of the results; do not simply list a series of tests. Care should be taken with respect to a) parametric vs. nonparametric data, b) corrections for multiple comparisons, and c) rounding errors (summary statistics should not contain more significant digits than the original data). Median range (or percentiles) is preferred for nonparametric data.
      5. Patient Identification
        Do not use patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers. An individual (other than an author) must not be recognizable in photographs unless written consent of the subject has been obtained and is provided at the time of submission.
    14. Permissions
      Written permission must be obtained from the author and publisher if any figure or table from a previously-published document is used. Contact the Editorial Office for further information.
    15. Language Editing Services
      Articles submitted to the journal must be written with a solid basis of English language. If you need assistance in this area, listed below are a few companies who provide language and copyediting services. Use of an editorial service is at the discretion and cost of the authors, and will not guarantee acceptance for publication in the journal.

      Please note: Appearance in the list of vendors does not represent endorsement by the publisher. Authors are encouraged to investigate each service on their own, as well as seek out additional vendors offering similar services.

    All submitted manuscripts are processed using the Journal's Editorial Manager (EM) System. Please read the following material carefully.

    If a manuscript is submitted via the Web, you will have an opportunity to review the constructed PDF file before approving the submission. Review this document carefully; it will be sent to reviewers. If we receive your text and graphics files via e-mail, they will be entered in to EM. You will then receive an e-mail asking you to go to the EM Web site and approve the PDF. Again, review this document carefully.

    1. File Formats, Text
      Textual material (Body text, Tables, Figure legends, etc.) can be submitted in any of the following formats:
      • Microsoft Word for Windows or Macintosh, any version (.doc)
      • WordPerfect for Windows, any version (.wpf)
      • Other word processing programs can be used, but save documents in ASCII text (.txt), RichTextFormat (.rtf) or Word (.doc).
      Use standard file extensions, e.g., .doc, .rtf, .txt.

      Textual files may be uploaded in compressed file formats (e.g., .zip, tar.gz) and the compressed file may contain multiple files.  Please carefully follow the guidelines concerning General Arrangement (Anesthesiology Instructions for Authors; VIII, A, 1-7 linked here) when assembling compressed files.
    2. File Formats, Fonts
      When files are received, they will be converted into PDF format. Problems can arise if the parent document contains fonts that cannot be converted. This is a particular problem with Asian fonts. To avoid difficulties, we ask that authors prepare their documents using one or more of the fonts listed below. These fonts should be used in the Body Text of the paper, as well as for all Tables and Figures. Acceptable fonts include
      Arial   Palatino
      Bookman Times
      Courier Times New Roman
      Georgia Verdana

      Special characters should be created with

      Symbol   Wingdings
      Webdings Zapf Dingbats
    3. File Formats, Graphics/Images
      Graphic material (half-tones, color pictures, scientific graphics) must be submitted in one of the following formats:
      • Bitmap (.bmp)
      • Encapsulated Postscript (.eps)
      • GIF (.gif)
      • JPEG (.jpg)
      • Pict (.pic)
      • Portable Document Format (.pdf)
      • TIFF (.tif)
      If you use drawing, drafting or scientific graphic packages (CorelDraw, SigmaPlot, DeltaGraph, GraphPad Prism, Microcal Origin, etc.), or statistical software with graphics capability (e.g., Statview, SAS, SPSS, InStat, etc.), save the final document as one of the above file formats. We cannot work with "native" files from these different programs.

      The initial version of figure files may be uploaded in compressed file formats (e.g., .zip, tar.gz) and multiple files may be included in the compressed file.  In order to ensure optimal production quality, final figure files must not be compressed.

      Figures should be saved at 150-300 dpi resolution, with image sizes no smaller than 4 x 6 inches. It is easier to make a high quality PDF from a large, higher resolution file than a small, low resolution one. Do not paste graphics into word processing documents, submit them as separate files. More information on electronic graphics can be found HERE

    4. File Sizes
      Manuscripts will be distributed to reviewers via the Web. However, reviewers who use telephone modems may experience unacceptable download delays if the files are too large. A number of simple tricks can be used to avoid unnecessarily large files. Do not scan pages of text. Do not scan printed Figures unless no original digital document exists. If a scanned figure is unavoidable, please use Adobe PhotoShop or a similar program to edit the file and reduce the file size (not necessarily the image size) as much as possible before submission. For example, crop the picture to exclude surrounding "white space." Do not carelessly use color. Black and white line drawings or gray-scale figures should not be saved as color documents; this will increase file sizes without increasing the information content of the file. Do not use color unless absolutely needed to convey information. Do not use compression software (Zip, Stuffit) to reduce a final file size.