Secondary Logo

Sepsis Updates

Unpackaging the New Bundles

Busse, Laurence W., MD, MBA*; Spiegel, Rory J., MD; Karambelkar, Amrita, MD; McCurdy, Michael T., MD

International Anesthesiology Clinics: April 2019 - Volume 57 - Issue 2 - p 3–16
doi: 10.1097/AIA.0000000000000219
Review Articles
Free

*Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory Johns Creek Hospital, Johns Creek, Georgia

Departments of Internal Medicine & Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

L.W.B. and M.T.M. report receiving consulting fees from La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company. The remaining authors declare that they have nothing to disclose.

Address Correspondence to: Michael T. McCurdy, MD, Departments of Internal Medicine & Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 110 South Paca Street, 2nd Floor, Baltimore, MD 21201. E-mail: drmccurdy@gmail.com

Sepsis and septic shock represent an enormous global burden, affecting millions of individuals each year.1,2 Similar to other medical emergencies, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and trauma, a timely protocolized approach to the identification and management of sepsis and septic shock is believed to improve clinically important outcomes. This review explores the foundational studies and historical circumstances that ultimately culminate in the current sepsis bundles.

Back to Top | Article Outline

The Origin of Protocolized Therapy

Prompted by advances in basic science and clinical research, both the definition and the management of sepsis have evolved considerably in recent years. In 1991, the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) first put forth a uniform definition of sepsis and provided guidelines for management to improve early detection, standardize therapies, and facilitate further research.3 The CCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee distinguished between sepsis, a term specific to infection, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which characterizes an inflammatory state arising from any noninfectious etiology, such as trauma, burns, and pancreatitis. SIRS was defined as ≥2 of the following criteria: (1) body temperature >38°F or <36°F; (2) heart rate >90 beats per minute; (3) tachypnea, manifested by a respiratory rate >20 breaths per minute, or hyperventilation, as indicated by a PaCO2 of <32 mm Hg; and (4) an alteration in the white blood cell count to >12,000 or <4000 cells per microliter, or the presence of >10% immature neutrophils (bands). Sepsis was defined as SIRS resulting from infection (suspected or confirmed).

In addition to simply defining sepsis, the Consensus Conference Committee also devised a grading system for capturing the severity of sepsis. “Severe sepsis” was defined as sepsis associated with organ dysfunction, hypoperfusion (eg, lactic acidosis, oliguria, altered mental status), or hypotension, in this case a systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90 mm Hg or a fall in SBP of ≥40 mm Hg relative to baseline, excluding other causes for hypotension (eg, cardiogenic shock). “Septic shock” was further defined as sepsis-induced hypotension that persisted despite adequate fluid resuscitation.

The 2001 landmark study by Rivers et al4 changed the early management of sepsis by showing a mortality benefit with the use of a rigorous protocol-based approach to sepsis treatment. Patients presenting with severe sepsis or septic shock (SBP of ≤90 mm Hg or lactate of ≥4 mmol/L after an initial 30 mL/kg crystalloid bolus) in the emergency department were assigned to receive an early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) protocol or standard of care. The 6-hour EGDT protocol included continuous monitoring of central venous pressure (CVP), central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), urine output, and mean arterial pressure (MAP). On the basis of these parameters, quantified therapies such as crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, red blood cells (RBC), and inotropes were administered in a protocolized manner. The authors reported a significant reduction in the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality (30.5% in the EGDT group versus 46.5% in the standard therapy group, P-value=0.009). After this study, many institutions began to implement EGDT for sepsis management.5

Back to Top | Article Outline

The Surviving Sepsis Campaign and the Introduction of Bundles

In 2002, SCCM and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) created the “Surviving Sepsis Campaign” (SSC) and issued the “Barcelona Declaration” calling for worldwide action to diagnose and treat sepsis more effectively, with the stated goal to reduce mortality by 25% in 5 years. The SSC recommended the adoption of a single definition for sepsis, early diagnosis, and treatment with consistent clinical protocols, early referrals for treatment, education of clinicians, and counseling to provide quality post-intensive care unit (ICU) care. Over the next several years, the SSC Steering Committee met to develop international consensus guidelines, which included evidence-based recommendations on early fluid resuscitation, vasopressor use, antibiotic utilization, biomarker interpretation, and adjunctive therapies, among others.6 These guidelines borrowed heavily from the protocol established by Rivers and colleagues, in addition to emerging studies describing protocolized treatment.7–9

In response to emerging evidence highlighting the benefits of early intervention in sepsis, the SSC Steering Committee developed treatment bundles to standardize care in the management of patients with septic shock. The initial bundles devised by the Steering Committee spanned the first 6 and 24 hours of patients’ care.6 In 2012, the Committee revised their initial management strategy, abandoning the 24-hour bundle altogether and splitting the 6-hour bundle into 3- and 6-hour bundles.10 The 3-hour bundle recommended that within the first 3 hours of the recognition of sepsis, one should:

  • measure lactate level;
  • begin rapid administration of 30 mL/kg crystalloid for hypotension (ie, SBP <90 mm Hg or MAP <65 mm Hg) or lactate ≥4 mmol/L;
  • obtain blood cultures before the administration of antibiotics; and
  • administer broad-spectrum antibiotics.

The 6-hour bundle recommended:

  • remeasurement of lactate if the initial value was >2 mmol/L; and
  • initiation of vasopressors if hypotension persisted after fluid administration.

The bundles provided a much-needed timeframe for early intervention in sepsis and reflected the evolving approach to sepsis management that focused on prompt and aggressive algorithmic treatment.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Refinement of Protocolized Therapy

A reexamination and refinement of the accepted protocolized therapy occurred in 2013, but stemmed from much earlier criticisms of EGDT, despite adoption at many institutions and endorsement and integration into the SSC. Much of the criticism of the Rivers trial revolved around its resuscitation goals and methodology,11 including the use of CVP to determine intravascular volume status and ScvO2 as a surrogate for tissue oxygenation, both of which have been debated as adequate markers.12 EGDT also called for the administration of RBC to improve oxygenation, which has been contested.13 Additional criticisms include the fact that the study was carried out at a single center and treating clinicians were not blinded to group allocation. Moreover, the standard therapy group had a higher than average mortality rate, indicating a population with greater morbidity at baseline, calling into question the appropriateness of the standard-of-care group as representative of typical acuity.13,14 A closer look at the therapies administered in this study reveals relatively high rates of RBC administration and pulmonary artery catheterization in both groups, and excessive resuscitative fluid administration in the initial 72 hours of management (with the EGDT group receiving significantly more fluid in the first 6 h). In both groups, the mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 9 days despite a mean duration of vasopressor use of about 3 days, suggesting that the large amount of fluid and blood products administered to patients may have contributed toward the persistent need for respiratory support.

Three large international randomized controlled trials (RCT) were conducted and published between 2013 and 2015 in an effort to reevaluate the appropriateness of the EGDT algorithm.15–17 The 31-center, 1343-patient “Protocol-based Care for Early Septic Shock” (ProCESS) trial in the United States assessed all-cause 60-day in-hospital mortality of patients receiving 3 different sepsis treatment algorithms: EGDT, a protocol-based standard therapy, or the “usual care” delivered at each participating institution.13 Similarly, the 51-center, 1591-patient “Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation” (ARISE) trial directly compared EGDT with “usual care” to determine 90-day all-cause mortality.16 Finally, the 56-site, 1260-patient “Protocolised Management in Sepsis (PROMISE)” trial assessed 90-day all-cause mortality in patients receiving EGDT compared with “standard care,”17 In short, all 3 major studies failed to identify a mortality benefit for using EGDT versus usual care or an alternative resuscitative strategy. A subsequent 2015 meta-analysis of 11 RCTs, including EGDT, ProCESS, ARISE, and PROMISE, found no mortality benefit to EGDT in patients with septic shock who were treated with EGDT versus an alternate strategy.18 The study did, however, identify a significant increase in ICU admission rates when EGDT was implemented, suggesting ineffective resource utilization with this strategy. Similarly, a patient-level meta-analysis published in 2017 by the Protocolized Resuscitation in Sepsis Meta-Analysis (PRISM) Investigators, which included the ProCESS, ARISE, and PROMISE trial investigators, used pooled data from the 3 trials to compare outcomes between EGDT and “usual care.”19 The study found no mortality difference at 90 days, but the EGDT arm resulted in an increased use of vasopressors or inotropes, a higher rate of ICU admissions, and longer ICU stays. The PRISM authors argued that, because of the evolution in the standard-of-care recognition and treatment of septic shock, the lack of mortality difference might have stemmed from the general adoption of algorithmic treatment principles in septic shock.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Formalizing the Process

In 2015, the United States Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) mandated a documentation system for the management of severe sepsis and septic shock, whereby the SSC’s 3- and 6-hour treatment bundles became CMS “core measures” with which hospitals had to comply and report their compliance. This CMS core measure was termed “SEP-1” and, although it only required hospitals to report their compliance, the implication was that performance of the bundles would eventually be tied directly to billing and reimbursement.20

Supporting SEP-1 was an accumulating body of evidence indicating that compliance with the SSC bundles was associated with an improvement in patient-centered outcomes.21–25 Levy and colleagues published the results of a retrospective analysis of 29,470 patients examining compliance with SSC bundles over a 7.5-year period. Lower mortality was observed in sites with a higher rate of compliance (29.0%) versus ones with a lower rate of compliance (38.6%) (P<0.001).21 Similar results were found in a retrospective study of 182 patients in surgical ICUs in which survival was associated with adherence to an increasing number of therapeutic guidelines comprised of bundled care [odds ratio (OR), 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.1; P<0.001].22 A prospective multicenter cohort study in the Netherlands compared 8387 patients in 52 ICUs who were participating in sepsis bundle programs with 8031 patients in 30 nonparticipating ICUs, and found that participation in bundle programs decreased in-hospital mortality by 5.8% over 3.5 years.24 The 3- and 6-hour bundles were evaluated in the International Multicentre Prevalence Study on Sepsis (IMPreSS), which included 1794 patients from 62 countries and compared bundle compliance and mortality.23 Compliance with the 3-hour bundle was only 19%, but was associated with lower hospital mortality than noncompliance (20% vs. 31%, P<0.001). Similarly, compliance with all 6-hour bundle metrics was 36%, but was associated with lower hospital mortality than noncompliance (22% vs. 32%, P<0.001). Importantly, compliance with bundled therapy was associated independently with improvements in hospital mortality (3-h bundle OR: 0.64, P=0.004; 6-hour bundle OR: 0.71, P=0.005).

Back to Top | Article Outline

Refining the Definition of Sepsis

In 2016, a task force supported by SCCM and ESICM published the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock, or “Sepsis 3.0.”26 The group defined sepsis as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Septic shock was defined as a lactate level ≥2 mmol/L in the absence of hypovolemia, along with the need for vasopressors to maintain a MAP≥65 mm Hg. The task force used data obtained from 1.3 million electronic medical records from 12 hospitals in southwestern Pennsylvania to identify clinical parameters that correlated most accurately with sepsis-related patient outcomes. These findings were then validated using four data sets of >700,000 patients from 165 hospitals in the United States and Germany.27 The diagnosis of sepsis required suspected or documented infection and an acute change in the Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) of ≥2 points. The task force found that an increase in the SOFA score of ≥2 compared with the baseline correlated with a 10% risk of mortality in ICU patients with suspected infection.15 Moreover, outside of the ICU, they found that an abbreviated SOFA assessment called the “quick SOFA” or “qSOFA” similarly predicted mortality. Therefore, they recommended utilizing qSOFA, comprised of tachypnea (≥22 breaths per minute), altered mental status (Glasgow Coma Scale <15), and SBP≤100 mm Hg.27 By assigning one point for each abnormal finding, a score of ≥2 predicted greater mortality than the presence of any single criterion. In addition to its ease of use, this definition had the advantage of being derived and validated from observational data.

Nonetheless, a great deal of controversy surrounds the Sepsis 3.0 definition.28 For example, the previous sepsis definition utilizing the highly sensitive SIRS criteria as the screening tool to help identify patients with sepsis suffered from poor specificity, which led to high resource utilization in a cohort of patients who uniformly did well without aggressive resuscitative efforts.29 Sepsis 3.0 is considered to be more consistent with the underlying physiology of sepsis,26 but is not as sensitive as the SIRS criteria.

In one prospective analysis comparing SIRS and qSOFA screenings tools, Freund et al30 reported an 8% overall mortality in a cohort of patients admitted from the ED with suspected infection. The in-hospital mortality was 3% in patients with a qSOFA score <2 compared with 24% in-hospital mortality in those with a qSOFA of ≥2. Similar to patients with a qSOFA<2, in-hospital mortality for patients with <2 SIRS criteria was 2.2%. However, unlike a qSOFA ≥2, two or more SIRS criteria did not identify a group of patients with a higher in-hospital mortality than that of the entire cohort (10.6% vs. 8%). This suggests that, although SIRS criteria can identify a cohort at very low risk for in-hospital death, it cannot identify those septic patients at high risk for death. A recent analysis of eight cohorts in low-income and middle-income countries by Rudd et al31 and a meta-analysis of the various studies comparing SIRS with qSOFA both found similar results.32

Back to Top | Article Outline

Assimilation of the SSC, the Bundles, and Sepsis 3.0

The SSC guidelines were subjected to multiple radical changes in the 2016 update,33 published after PROMISE, ProCESS, and ARISE failed to find a mortality benefit specifically through the use of EGDT. The updated guidelines reflected these findings, deemphasizing the need for invasive monitoring strategies, such as measuring CVP or ScvO2, opting rather for simpler and less invasive methods of monitoring a patient’s response to initial resuscitative efforts. In addition, compared with the 2012 guidelines, which defined sepsis as infection-induced SIRS, the 2016 addition incorporated the Sepsis 3.0 definition.26 Consistent with the Sepsis 3.0 definition, the category of severe sepsis (previously defined as sepsis with signs of organ dysfunction) was removed from the guidelines. Currently, the SSC guidelines divide sepsis into two categories: sepsis (suspected infection with organ dysfunction) and septic shock (sepsis with hypotension and a lactate >2 after initial resuscitative efforts). Although the SSC embraces the Sepsis 3.0 definition, it also notes that many institutions have established sepsis treatment protocols on the basis of the former SIRS-based definition and therefore recommends that these institutions not be required to change their protocols.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Introduction of the 2018 1-Hour Bundle

The 2016 update of the SSC guidelines refers extensively to the 3- and 6-hour therapeutic bundles, endorsing the achievement of diagnostic and treatment goals within a specific timeframe. In 2018, the SSC bundles were subjected to a major revision, in which the 3- and 6-hour bundles were eliminated in favor of a 1-hour bundle34 (Fig. 1). Central to this revision is the widely accepted belief that sepsis is a medical emergency and that immediate management is associated with improved outcomes.9,35,36 This bundle requires the initiation of the following elements within 1 hour of ED triage or, if referred from another care location, from the earliest chart annotation consistent with all elements of sepsis (formerly severe sepsis) or septic shock, as ascertained through chart review:

  • measure lactate level; remeasure if initial lactate is >2 mmol/L;
  • obtain blood cultures before the administration of antibiotics;
  • administer broad-spectrum antibiotics;
  • begin rapid administration of 30 mL/kg crystalloid for hypotension or lactate ≥4 mmol/L; and
  • apply vasopressors if the patient is hypotensive during or after fluid resuscitation to maintain MAP ≥65 mm Hg.
Figure 1

Figure 1

Despite the extensive literature review by Levy et al,34 the evidence supporting the 1-hour bundle is far from robust. The following is a review of each recommendation, along with the strength of the evidence supporting its use.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Serum Lactate

The 1-hour bundle recommends that the initial lactate be drawn within 1 hour of presentation, and, if elevated, should be remeasured within 2 to 4 hours. This recommendation stems from various RCTs showing improved outcomes when lactate-guided resuscitation strategies are utilized.37–39 Importantly, although all 3 of the trials used to support the 1-hour bundle recommendation examined the use of lactate as part of a resuscitation strategy, only one of these trials actually identified a statistically significant survival benefit in patients randomized to a lactate-guided resuscitation strategy.39 The 2 larger statistically robust trials found no survival advantage in patients randomized to a lactate-guided resuscitation strategy and one found that such a strategy was associated with greater fluid administration over the initial 8 hours of care.37 Since the publication of these trials, the understanding of lactate generation in sepsis has evolved. A substantial portion of the increase in serum lactate levels observed in patients with sepsis does not directly result from tissue hypoxia, but rather reflects an increase in sympathetic tone as a direct response to infection.40,41 Nonetheless, lactate remains a good prognostic marker of a patient’s severity of illness and is valuable in the initial workup of a patient with sepsis.42,43 Because lactate production is not specific to sepsis and elevations can be observed due to a multitude of acute stressors,44 early increases in serum lactate may not necessarily be because of tissue hypoxia; clinicians should administer additional fluid with caution. Persistent elevations in serum lactate should prompt further investigation into a patient’s cardiac function, determination of whether adequate source control has been achieved, and identification of other potential sources of lactate generation (eg, high-dose epinephrine infusions, mitochondrial toxins, cofactor deficiencies).

Back to Top | Article Outline

Blood Cultures Before Antibiotics

The current 1-hour bundle encourages obtaining blood cultures before the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics, but they caution not to delay antibiotic administration at the expense of collecting cultures. Although some low-quality data suggest that sterilization of blood occurs as early as 30 minutes after the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics, the yield of positive blood cultures acquired even before the administration of antibiotics varies widely (14.5% to 60.6%) in patients with sepsis.45,46 More importantly, the occasions when these blood cultures change clinical care is infrequent. Given that no studies have ever found improvement in patient-centered outcomes associated with obtaining blood cultures in patients with sepsis, delay in the administration of antibiotics to obtain blood cultures is not advised.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Broad-spectrum Antibiotics

The 1-hour bundle recommends the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics to be initiated within 1 hour of identification of patients with suspected sepsis. This recommendation is based on multiple studies suggesting a temporal benefit to early, appropriate antibiotics in patients presenting with sepsis or septic shock.25,35,36,47 Despite strong physiological plausibility supporting timely antibiotics, the actual evidence supporting earlier administration is ambiguous. The data cited by the authors supporting earlier administration of antibiotics originate from observational cohorts that show an association between earlier antibiotic administration and decreased mortality. Without randomization, however, numerous confounders may bias these observed results. Even in these observational cohorts, the temporal benefit of antibiotic administration was only observed in sicker subsets of septic patients. The only RCT cited by the 1-hour bundle author, which examined early antibiotic administration in patients with suspected sepsis in the prehospital setting, showed equivocal results. Despite receiving antibiotics ∼90 minutes earlier than the comparator, patients administered early broad-spectrum antibiotics (in an ambulance by paramedics) fared no better than those randomized to the traditional administration in the ED.48

Back to Top | Article Outline

Fluid Bolus of 30 mL/kg

The fluid bolus recommendation may be the most controversial in the current 1-hour sepsis bundle. The 1-hour bundle recommends that initial fluid resuscitation begin immediately upon recognizing sepsis and/or hypotension and elevated lactate, and should be completed within 3 hours. Unchanged from previous bundle recommendations is the required minimum administration of 30 mL/kg intravenous crystalloid fluid. Although this fluid volume is consistent with standard of care, a growing body of literature documents the harms of excess fluid administration.49–51 In fact, one trial cited by the authors of the 1-hour bundle could not show any temporal benefit to early fluid resuscitation.35 Two RCTs, the REFRESH and CLOVERS trials, are currently attempting to determine the optimal fluid resuscitation strategy in patients with sepsis and septic shock.52,53 A prudent approach tailored to the individual patient, keeping in mind preinfectious fluid status and objective findings of fluid responsiveness (with bedside ultrasound, for example), may be the best course of action.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Apply Vasopressors for a MAP ≥65 mm Hg

The recommendation on the management of vasopressor therapy represents the most important change in the 2018 version of the SSC bundle. Historically, the recommendations encouraged adequate fluid resuscitation before initiating vasopressor agents. The 1-hour bundle recommends early use of vasopressors, in parallel with fluid resuscitation, to provide an adequate perfusion pressure to the vital organs. Multiple observational and retrospective analyses have examined whether early vasopressor initiation affects patient outcomes. A retrospective study in surgical ICU patients with septic shock found a significant difference in 28-day mortality between the early (29.1%) and late initiation of norepinephrine (43.3%).54 A regression analysis showed a risk of death with each hour of delay of norepinephrine administration, with OR 1.20 (1.07-1.37, P=0.002). However, additional studies found only small statistical associations of questionable clinical relevance or failed to identify any effect of early initiation of vasopressors.55,56 Although the recommendation of early aggressive use of vasopressors to maintain a MAP of ≥65 mm Hg is supported by plausible physiological reasoning, these discordant empiric results highlight the importance of RCTs to derive a clear effect of vasopressor timing on mortality and other outcomes of interest.

In addition to timing of vasopressors, little is known about the ideal MAP target in patients with septic shock. The current SSC guidelines and 1-hour bundle recommend a minimum MAP of ≥65 mm Hg. Despite this recommendation, no robust data support a single MAP goal for all patients presenting with septic shock. In fact, many small trials have shown improvements in microcirculation and end-organ oxygen saturation when MAP goals well above 65 mm Hg were utilized.57 To date, only one multicenter RCT has examined MAP goals in patients with septic shock.58 At 28 and 90 days, the authors found no significant differences in mortality in the high-MAP and low-MAP groups. A lower need for renal replacement therapy in patients with chronic hypertension was observed in the high-MAP group; however, this was contrasted with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation. These hypothesis-generating results suggest that an individualized approach that considers optimizing end-organ perfusion, not a singular MAP goal, may be preferred.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Deficiencies With the 1-Hour Bundle

A prudent criticism of the 1-hour bundle is appropriate, given the emphasis afforded to its predecessors (ie, 3- and 6-h bundles) by CMS, quality agencies, and health care entities worldwide. The majority of the evidence used to support the introduction of the revised 1-hour bundle comes from observational data35 and shows association, but not necessarily causation.59 Importantly, the temporal decrease in overall sepsis mortality is not evidence that the SSC treatment bundles are beneficial; similar mortality reductions have occurred in Australia and New Zealand, countries that have not endorsed the SSC treatment bundles.60 Furthermore, evidence supporting the 1-hour bundle is largely from observational studies21–25,35 that examined earlier versions of the SSC bundles. None of this evidence explicitly studied the benefits of a 1-hour treatment bundle. In fact, many RCTs have called into question the individual components of protocolized therapies used in these observational analyses.15–17

Back to Top | Article Outline

Conclusions

A great deal of progress has been made in the understanding of the underlying physiology and treatment strategies of sepsis and septic shock. Much has changed since the earliest iterations of guidelines from the SSC. A protocolized approach to the treatment of sepsis and septic shock has been proven to be beneficial, and although the exact protocol continues to evolve, a few key elements have persisted, including early identification and source control, fluid resuscitation, blood pressure support, and objective timely reevaluation. Timely treatment and evaluation, as emphasized in the SSC bundles, have underscored the belief that sepsis and septic shock are medical emergencies. However, both the SSC guidelines and the bundles must be interpreted and executed with caution because much of the evidence is circumstantial and may be associated with unintended consequences. The proposed 1-hour bundle, for example, may restrict the time allotted to providers for the identification and treatment of patients with suspected sepsis, and adherence to this mandate may result in the needless exposure to aggressive resuscitative measures with modest evidence of benefit. However, the evolution in sepsis recognition and treatment has clearly led to improved patient outcomes, and future efforts and research should be met with cautious optimism.

Back to Top | Article Outline

References

1. Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Lidicker J, et al. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:1303–1310.
2. Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S, et al. The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1546–1554.
3. Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, et al. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine. Chest. 1992;101:1644–1655.
4. Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1368–1377.
5. Nguyen HB, Jaehne AK, Jayaprakash N, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in severe sepsis and septic shock: insights and comparisons to ProCESS, ProMISe, and ARISE. Crit Care. 2016;20:160.
6. Dellinger RP, Carlet JM, Masur H, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:858–873.
7. Levy MM, Pronovost PJ, Dellinger RP, et al. Sepsis change bundles: converting guidelines into meaningful change in behavior and clinical outcome. Crit Care Med. 2004;32(suppl):S595–S597.
8. Levy MM, Dellinger RP, Townsend SR, et al. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign: results of an international guideline-based performance improvement program targeting severe sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:367–374.
9. Ferrer R, Martin-Loeches I, Phillips G, et al. Empiric antibiotic treatment reduces mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock from the first hour: results from a guideline-based performance improvement program. Crit Care Med. 2014;42:1749–1755.
10. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:165–228.
11. Burton TM. New therapy for sepsis infections raises hope but many questions. Wall Street J. 2008:1.
12. Cecconi M, De Backer D, Antonelli M, et al. Consensus on circulatory shock and hemodynamic monitoring. Task force of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Intensive Care Med. 2014;40:1795–1815.
13. Sarkar S, Kupfer Y, Tessler S. Goal-directed therapy for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1025–1026.
14. Roche AM, Miller TE. Goal-directed or goal-misdirected—how should we interpret the literature? Crit Care. 2010;14:129.
15. Protocolized Care for Early Septic Shock Investigators, Yealy DM, Kellum JA, Huang DT, et al. A randomized trial of protocol-based care for early septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1683–1693.
16. Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation Investigators, Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group, Peake SL, Delaney A, Bailey M, et al. Goal-directed resuscitation for patients with early septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1496–1506.
17. Mouncey PR, Osborn TM, Power GS, et al. Trial of early, goal-directed resuscitation for septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1301–1311.
18. Angus DC, Barnato AE, Bell D, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of early goal-directed therapy for septic shock: the ARISE, ProCESS and ProMISe Investigators. Intensive Care Med. 2015;41:1549–1560.
19. Protocolized Resuscitation in Sepsis Meta-Analysis Investigators, Rowan KM, Angus DC, Bailey M, et al. Early, goal-directed therapy for septic shock—a patient-level meta-analysis. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:2223–2234.
20. Motzkus CA, Lilly CM. Accountability for sepsis treatment: the SEP-1 core measure. Chest. 2017;151:955–957.
21. Levy MM, Rhodes A, Phillips GS, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: association between performance metrics and outcomes in a 7.5-year study. Intensive Care Med. 2014;40:1623–1633.
22. Pestana D, Espinosa E, Sangueesa-Molina JR, et al. Compliance with a sepsis bundle and its effect on intensive care unit mortality in surgical septic shock patients. J Trauma. 2010;69:1282–1287.
23. Barochia AV, Cui X, Vitberg D, et al. Bundled care for septic shock: an analysis of clinical trials. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:668–678.
24. van Zanten AR, Brinkman S, Arbous MS, et al. Guideline bundles adherence and mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2014;42:1890–1898.
25. Rhodes A, Phillips G, Beale R, et al. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign bundles and outcome: results from the International Multicentre Prevalence Study on Sepsis (the IMPreSS study). Intensive Care Med. 2015;41:1620–1628.
26. Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, et al. The Third International Consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016;315:801–810.
27. Seymour CW, Liu VX, Iwashyna TJ, et al. Assessment of clinical criteria for sepsis: for the Third International Consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016;315:762–774.
28. Simpson SQ. SIRS in the time of Sepsis-3. Chest. 2018;153:34–38.
29. Churpek MM, Zadravecz FJ, Winslow C, et al. Incidence and prognostic value of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ dysfunctions in ward patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192:958–964.
30. Freund Y, Lemachatti N, Krastinova E, et al. Prognostic accuracy of Sepsis-3 criteria for in-hospital mortality among patients with suspected infection presenting to the emergency department. JAMA. 2017;317:301–308.
31. Rudd KE, Seymour CW, Aluisio AR, et al. Association of the quick sequential (sepsis-related) organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score with excess hospital mortality in adults with suspected infection in low- and middle-income countries. JAMA. 2018;319:2202–2211.
32. Song JU, Sin CK, Park HK, et al. Performance of the quick Sequential (sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment score as a prognostic tool in infected patients outside the intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care. 2018;22:28.
33. Rhodes A, Evans LE, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock: 2016. Intensive Care Med. 2017;43:304–377.
34. Levy MM, Evans LE, Rhodes A. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Bundle: 2018 Update. Crit Care Med. 2018;46:997–1000.
35. Seymour CW, Gesten F, Prescott H, et al. Time to treatment and mortality during mandated emergency care for sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:2235–2244.
36. Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE, et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:1589–1596.
37. Jansen TC, van Bommel J, Schoonderbeek FJ, et al. LACTATE Study Group. Early lactate-guided therapy in intensive care unit patients: a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:752–761.
38. Jones AE, Shapiro NI, Trzeciak S, et al. Emergency Medicine Shock Research Network (EMShockNet) Investigators. Lactate clearance vs central venous oxygen saturation as goals of early sepsis therapy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2010;303:739–746.
39. Lyu X, Xu Q, Cai G, et al. Efficacies of fluid resuscitation as guided by lactate clearance rate and central venous oxygen saturation in patients with septic shock. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi [Chin J Med]. 2015;95:496–500.
40. Levy B. Lactate and shock state: the metabolic view. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2006;12:315–321.
41. Casserly B, Phillips GS, Schorr C, et al. Lactate measurements in sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion: results from the Surviving Sepsis Campaign database. Crit Care Med. 2015;43:567–573.
42. Shapiro NI, Howell MD, Talmor D, et al. Serum lactate as a predictor of mortality in emergency department patients with infection. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;45:524–528.
43. Puskarich MA, Trzeciak S, Shapiro NI, et al. Whole blood lactate kinetics in patients undergoing quantitative resuscitation for severe sepsis and septic shock. Chest. 2013;143:1548–1553.
44. Andersen LW, Mackenhauer J, Roberts JC, et al. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88:1127–1140.
45. Bates DW, Sands K, Miller E, et al. Predicting bacteremia in patients with sepsis syndrome. Academic Medical Center Consortium Sepsis Project Working Group. J Infect Dis. 1997;176:1538–1551.
46. Coburn B, Morris AM, Tomlinson G, et al. Does this adult patient with suspected bacteremia require blood cultures? JAMA. 2012;308:502–511.
47. Damiani E, Donati A, Serafni G, et al. Effect of performance improvement programs on compliance with sepsis bundles and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0125827.
48. Alam N, Oskam E, Stassen PM, et al. Prehospital antibiotics in the ambulance for sepsis: a multicentre, open label, randomised trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2018;6:40–50.
49. Andrews B, Semler MW, Muchemwa L, et al. Effect of an early resuscitation protocol on in-hospital mortality among adults with sepsis and hypotension: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017;318:1233–1240.
50. Maitland K, Kiguli S, Opoka RO, et al. Mortality after fluid bolus in African children with severe infection. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2483–2495.
51. Spiegel RJ, Kappler SB, McCurdy MT. Fluid responsiveness: goal-directed care or resuscitative guide to salt water drowning? Crit Care Med. 2018;46:e816–e817.
52. Macdonald SPJ, Taylor DM, Keijzers G, et al. REstricted Fluid REsuscitation in Sepsis-associated Hypotension (REFRESH): study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2017;18:399.
53. Self WH, Semler MW, Bellomo R, et al. Liberal versus restrictive intravenous fluid therapy for early septic shock: rationale for a randomized trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2018. pii:S0196-0644(18)30315-9.
54. Bai X, Yu W, Ji W, et al. Early versus delayed administration of norepinephrine in patients with septic shock. Crit Care. 2014;18:532.
55. Beck V, Chateau D, Bryson GL, et al. Timing of vasopressor initiation and mortality in septic shock: a cohort study. Crit Care. 2014;18:R97.
56. Patel JJ, Kurman JS, Biesboer A, et al. Impact of duration of hypotension prior to norepinephrine initiation in medical intensive care unit patients with septic shock: a prospective observational study. J Crit Care. 2017;40:178–183.
57. Thooft A, Favory R, Salgado DR, et al. Effects of changes in arterial pressure on organ perfusion during septic shock. Crit Care. 2011;15:R222.
58. Asfar P, Meziani F, Hamel JF, et al. High versus low blood-pressure target in patients with septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1583–1593.
59. Spiegel R, Farkas JD, Rola P, et al. The 2018 Surviving Sepsis Campaign’s treatment bundle: when guidelines outpace the evidence supporting their use. Ann Emerg Med. 2018. pii: S0196-0644(18)30607-3. [Epub ahead of print].
60. Kaukonen KM, Bailey M, Suzuki S, et al. Mortality related to severe sepsis and septic shock among critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand, 2000-2012. JAMA. 2014;311:1308–1316.
Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.