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The History of Target-Controlled Infusion

Struys, Michel M. R. F. MD, PhD, FRCA (Hon)*†; De Smet, Tom PhD; Glen, John (Iain) B. BVMS, PhD, FRCA§; Vereecke, Hugo E. M. MD, PhD*; Absalom, Anthony R. MBChB, FRCA, MD*; Schnider, Thomas W. Prof Dr Med

doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001008
Anesthetic Pharmacology: Review Article
Continuing Medical Education

Target-controlled infusion (TCI) is a technique of infusing IV drugs to achieve a user-defined predicted (“target”) drug concentration in a specific body compartment or tissue of interest. In this review, we describe the pharmacokinetic principles of TCI, the development of TCI systems, and technical and regulatory issues addressed in prototype development. We also describe the launch of the current clinically available systems.

Published ahead of print October 29, 2015

From the *Department of Anesthesiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; Department of Anesthesia, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium; Demed, Temse, Belgium; §GlenPharma, Knutsford, Cheshire, United Kingdom; and Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care, Rescue and Pain Medicine, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Accepted for publication July 27, 2015.

Published ahead of print October 29, 2015

Funding: Departmental and institutional.

Conflict of Interest: See Disclosures at the end of the article.

Reprints will not be available from the authors.

Address correspondence to Michel M. R. F. Struys, MD, PhD, FRCA (Hon), Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1 (EB32), 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands. Address e-mail to

© 2016 International Anesthesia Research Society