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To Include or Exclude? That Is the Question for Clinical Researchers Investigating in the Current Opioid Epidemic

Panchamia, Jason K., DO*; Amundson, Adam W., MD*; Poeran, Jashvant, MD, PhD†,‡; Nguyen, Ngoc Tram V., BA§; Kopp, Sandra L., MD*; Johnson, Rebecca L., MD*

doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000004090
The Open Mind: The Open Mind

From the *Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

Departments of Population Health Science and Policy

Orthopaedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York

§Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Published ahead of print 17 January 2019.

Accepted for publication January 17, 2019.

Funding: None.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Reprints will not be available from the authors.

Address correspondence to Jason K. Panchamia, DO, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905. Address e-mail to

© 2019 International Anesthesia Research Society
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