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Chris W. Fields & Jon G. Dean
The video in left panel shows behavioral arousal after bilateral electrical stimulation of basal forebrain (200 Hz, 30 s ON, 30 s OFF, 60 – 100 µA) in a female Sprague Dawley rat (session 1). Note that the behavioral arousal after electrical stimulation occurred under continuous sevoflurane exposure; the rat was breathing 1.7% sevoflurane before, during, and after recovery of the righting reflex. The right panel shows the effect of bilateral electrical stimulation in the same rat (session 2;~1 week later) after inactivation of prefrontal cortex with bilateral infusion of 156 µM tetrodotoxin. The inactivation of prefrontal cortex attenuated the arousal-promoting effects of basal forebrain stimulation. The traces on top of the video show the electroencephalographic activation induced by electrical stimulation. The lightning bolt in the upper right-hand corner indicates when the electrical stimuli were being delivered.