Some minor surgical procedures requiring anesthesia may be performed in a WHO Level 1 facility.
- The LCoGS describes three levels of facility, approximately aligned with the WHO levels—primary health centre, first level (district) hospital, and higher-level (secondary or tertiary) hospital (Table 4). The LCoGS first-level hospital (equivalent to WHO Level 2) should be capable of providing Cesarean delivery, laparotomy, and treatment of open fracture (the so-called “Bellwether Procedures”, taken to indicate a “system advanced enough to do most other surgical procedures”).5 , 8
- The DCP-3 also describes three levels of facility for delivery of essential surgery—the primary health centre, first-level hospital, and second- and third-level hospitals (Table 4). Only minor surgical procedures not requiring general anesthesia or sedation should be performed at the primary health centre. The first-level hospital is aligned with WHO Level 2.
- It is difficult to exactly align the three levels of the International Standards with the levels of healthcare facility (Table 4). We recognize that, in some countries, especially those with limited access to healthcare facilities, surgery and anesthesia may be performed in a Level 1 facility. The relevant standards are determined by the surgical cases done in the facility rather than the officially designated facility level. HIGHLY RECOMMENDED standards apply to all levels of facility providing surgery and anesthesia, including the lowest.
- In general:
- Level 1 facilities providing surgery and anesthesia: HIGHLY RECOMMENDED standards.
- Level 2 facilities: HIGHLY RECOMMENDED standards for facilities providing the Bellwether Procedures and a limited range of other surgical procedures. HIGHLY RECOMMENDED + RECOMMENDED standards for larger facilities providing a wide range of emergency and elective procedures.
- Level 3 facilities: HIGHLY RECOMMENDED + RECOMMENDED + SUGGESTED for facilities providing a full range of emergency and elective procedures as well as subspecialty procedures.
- In all facilities, the goal always should be to practice to the highest possible standards.
International Standards for a Safe Practice of Anesthesia
The standards are grouped under the following headings:
- Professional aspects
- Facilities and equipment
- Medications and intravenous fluids
- Conduct of anesthesia
Safe surgical and anesthesia care requires effective communication and teamwork between all healthcare workers. The model of delivery of anesthesia care varies from country to country and all anesthesia providers should be trained to a nationally recognized standard. Anesthesiologists and non-anesthesiologist providers need to understand each other’s scope of practice and skills.
Anesthesia is a vital component of basic healthcare and requires appropriate resources. Anesthesia is inherently complex and potentially very hazardous, and its safe provision requires a high level of expertise in medical diagnosis, pharmacology, physiology, and anatomy, as well as considerable practical skill. Therefore, the WFSA views anesthesiology as a medical practice. Wherever and whenever possible, anesthesia should be provided, led, or overseen by an anesthesiologist (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED). When anesthesia is provided by non-anesthesiologists, these providers should be directed and supervised by anesthesiologists, in accordance with their level of training and skill. When there are no anesthesiologists at a local level, leadership should be provided by the most qualified individual. Policies and guidelines consistent with this document should be developed at a local, regional, or national level by a team of anesthesia providers led by an anesthesiologist.
Every patient should be cared for at the highest standard of safety possible, independent of whether the provider is an anesthesiologist or a non-anesthesiologist. This means that there is only one standard of safety and this does not vary among provider groups. Therefore, local and national standards should be consistent with the recommendations in this document (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED).
Sufficient time, facilities, and financial support should be available for professional training of all anesthesia providers, both initial and continuing, to ensure that an adequate standard of knowledge, expertise, and practice is attained and maintained. Formal training in a nationally accredited (postgraduate) education program and documentation of training is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED.
Number of Anesthesia Providers
The LCoGS goal of all countries achieving a specialist surgical workforce (surgeons, anesthesiologists, obstetricians) of at least 20 per 100,000 population by 2030 is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED.4 The number of anesthesiologists within the specialist surgical workforce must be adequate to ensure effective leadership of anesthesia services and delivery of care. Currently, many countries fall below target (www.wfsahq.org/workforce-map). The number of non-anesthesiologist providers will be determined by local models of care, surgical demands, financial resources, and other factors.
Anesthesia providers should form appropriate organizations (eg, societies, colleges) at local, regional, and national levels for the setting of standards of practice, supervision of training, and continuing education with appropriate certification and accreditation (RECOMMENDED). These organizations should form links with appropriate groups within the region, the country, and internationally.
Institutional, regional, and/or national mechanisms should be instituted to provide an ongoing review of anesthetic practice. Regular confidential discussion of appropriate topics and cases with multidisciplinary professional colleagues should take place. Protocols and standard operating procedures should be developed to ensure that deficiencies in individual and collective practice are identified and rectified in a nonpunitive manner. An anonymous incident-reporting system with case analysis resulting in recommendations for alterations in practice is RECOMMENDED.
A sufficient number of trained anesthesia providers should be available so that individuals may practice to a high standard without undue fatigue or physical demands (RECOMMENDED) (www.wfsahq.org/our-work/safety-quality). Time should be allocated for education, professional development, administration, research, and teaching (RECOMMENDED).
Facilities and equipment
Standards for facilities and equipment are summarized in Table 5. This table includes monitoring equipment; additional standards for monitoring are summarized in Table 7.
Appropriate facilities and equipment meeting the standards in this document should be present wherever anesthesia and recovery are undertaken, including locations outside the operating room (eg, radiology suites, outpatient facilities, or offices).
Training in the use and safety of equipment is required (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED). Formal certification and documentation of this training are SUGGESTED. Anesthesia equipment should conform to relevant national and international standards—eg, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (www.iso.org/home.html).
Medications and intravenous fluids
Standards for medications and intravenous fluids are summarized in Table 6.
Adequate quantities of appropriate anesthetic, analgesic, resuscitative, and other (adjuvant) medications should be available in healthcare facilities. The medications listed in Table 6 are a minimum and should be readily available for individual patients, irrespective of the patient’s ability to pay for them. The WHO Essential Medicines List serves as a guide to the minimum medications that should be available (http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/).
All medications should be clearly labelled and dated (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED). Use of the ISO standard-coloured medication labels is SUGGESTED (www.iso.org/standard/43811.html).
Supplemental oxygen is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED for all patients undergoing general anesthesia and deep sedation. Supplemental oxygen is SUGGESTED for patients receiving moderate sedation. The inspired oxygen should be guided by pulse oximetry.
Standards for intra- and postoperative monitoring are summarized in Table 7.
Trained Anesthesia Provider
The most important monitor is a trained and vigilant anesthesia provider. He/she should be continuously present in the operating or procedure room during the anesthetic until recovery of consciousness or until care is transferred to another trained healthcare worker—eg, postanesthesia nurse (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED).
Continuous clinical observation (eg, a finger on the pulse, direct observation of the patient, precordial stethoscope) is an essential component of monitoring an anesthetized patient. Clinical observation may allow earlier detection of clinical deterioration than monitoring equipment.
Available audible signals, such as the variable pitch pulse tone of the pulse oximeter, with appropriately set alarm limits, should be activated at all times and loud enough to be heard throughout the operating room (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED).
It is RECOMMENDED that the inspired oxygen concentration be monitored throughout each anesthetic with an instrument fitted with a low oxygen concentration alarm. An oxygen supply failure alarm and a device protecting against the delivery of a hypoxic gas mixture are RECOMMENDED. Systems with interlocks (eg, tank yokes, hose connectors) are RECOMMENDED to prevent misconnection of gas sources.
Oxygenation of the Patient.
Tissue oxygenation and perfusion should be monitored continuously by clinical observation AND a pulse oximeter (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED). Clinical observation of oxygenation requires exposure of part of the patient (eg, face or hand, with adequate lighting).
Airway and Breathing.
The adequacy of the airway and ventilation should be monitored by auscultation and continuous clinical observation (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED). Where a breathing circuit is used, the reservoir bag should be observed. In some environments, continuous use of a precordial or esophageal stethoscope may be appropriate.
If an endotracheal tube is used, correct placement must be verified by auscultation (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED). Confirmation of correct placement by carbon dioxide detection (ie, non-waveform capnography or colourimetry) is also HIGHLY RECOMMENDED.
Continuous waveform capnography is RECOMMENDED for monitoring the adequacy of ventilation in intubated and/or paralyzed patients and also other patients undergoing general anesthesia or deep sedation. This form of monitoring will be HIGHLY RECOMMENDED when appropriately robust and suitably priced devices are available. Equipment manufacturers are encouraged to urgently address this deficiency.
When mechanical ventilation is used, a ventilator disconnect alarm should be used (RECOMMENDED).
Continuous measurement of inspiratory and/or expiratory gas volumes is SUGGESTED.
Cardiac Rate and Rhythm.
The circulation must be monitored continuously. Palpation or display of the pulse and/or auscultation of the heart sounds should be continuous. Continuous monitoring and display of the heart rate with a pulse oximeter are HIGHLY RECOMMENDED. Monitoring of cardiac rhythm with an electrocardiograph is RECOMMENDED.
Noninvasive arterial blood pressure (NIBP) should be monitored using an appropriately sized cuff at appropriate intervals (usually at least every five minutes and more frequently if a patient is unstable) (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED). Automated NIBP devices may allow the anesthesia provider to concentrate on other anesthesia tasks during an anesthetic. Continuous direct measurement and display of arterial pressure using an intra-arterial cannula and measurement system are SUGGESTED in appropriate cases. This allows continuous beat-by-beat monitoring of blood pressure. It should be considered when hemodynamic instability from blood loss, fluid shifts, or significant cardiopulmonary disease is anticipated. It is also useful when multiple blood samples are needed (eg, blood glucose management of brittle insulin-dependent diabetics).
During prolonged procedures or when significant administration of intravenous fluids is anticipated, urine output should be monitored (SUGGESTED).
A means of measuring the temperature should be available and used at frequent intervals where clinically indicated (eg, prolonged or complex anesthetics and in young children). The availability and use of continuous electronic temperature measurement in appropriate patients are SUGGESTED.
When muscle relaxants are given, the use of a peripheral neuromuscular transmission monitor (nerve stimulator) is RECOMMENDED.
Depth of Anesthesia.
The depth of anesthesia (degree of unconsciousness) should be regularly assessed by clinical observation. The continuous measurement of inspired and expired concentrations of inhalational anesthetic agents is SUGGESTED.
The use of an electronic device intended to measure brain function (processed electroencephalography, depth of anesthesia monitor), while not universally recommended or used, is SUGGESTED, particularly in cases at risk of awareness under general anesthesia or postoperative delirium.
All patients should be monitored in the postanesthesia recovery area until recovery of consciousness. Patients with hemodynamic, respiratory, or neurologic instability should be transferred to a high-dependency nursing unit or intensive care unit. Postoperative monitoring should follow similar principles to intraoperative monitoring. Continuous clinical observation by a trained healthcare worker is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED. This includes observation of oxygenation, airway and breathing, and circulation and measurement of the patient’s pain score. Use of a pulse oximeter and intermittent NIBP monitoring are HIGHLY RECOMMENDED.
Use of other monitoring (eg, monitoring of temperature and urine output) may also be indicated, depending on patient and surgical factors.
Conduct of anesthesia
One anesthesia provider should be dedicated to each patient and be present in the anesthetizing location throughout each anesthetic (general anesthesia, moderate or deep sedation, regional anesthesia). A trained assistant (eg, operating room nurse or technician) should be available to assist the anesthesia provider (RECOMMENDED).
The anesthesia provider is responsible for the transport of the patient to a suitable postanesthesia recovery area and the detailed transfer of care to an appropriately trained healthcare worker (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED).
Preanesthetic Assessment and Consent
The patient must be assessed by the anesthesia provider prior to administration of anesthesia, preferably prior to entry into the operating room, and an appropriate anesthetic plan formulated and documented in the patient’s medical record (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED). The assessment should include preoperative optimization of medical problems and a plan for intraoperative and postoperative management.
Consent consistent with hospital policy, preferably written, should be obtained (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED).
The anesthesia provider must ensure that the facilities and personnel are adequate for the delivery of safe anesthesia and all medications and equipment (including the anesthesia machine/delivery system) have been checked prior to commencing the anesthetic (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED).
WHO Safe Surgery Checklist
The WHO Surgical Safety Checklist (http://www.who.int/patientsafety/safesurgery/ss_checklist/en/) is a simple tool designed to improve the safety of surgical procedures by bringing together the whole operating team (surgeons, anesthesia providers, and nurses) to perform key safety checks during three vital phases of care: prior to the induction of anesthesia, prior to skin incision, and before the team leaves the operating room. The use of the checklist, appropriately modified for local conditions and priorities, is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED.
A record of the details of each anesthetic should be made and preserved with the patient’s medical record (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED). This should include details of the preoperative assessment, the anesthetic plan, and intra- and the postoperative management, including any complications that occurred.
All patients who have had an anesthetic (general anesthesia, moderate or deep sedation, regional anesthesia) should remain where anesthetized until recovered or be transported safely to a specifically designated recovery area for postanesthesia recovery (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED).9 The postanesthesia recovery area must be adequately staffed by healthcare workers trained to manage patients recovering from anesthesia and surgery (RECOMMENDED). Oxygen, suction, a means of ventilation (eg, self-inflating bag-mask system), and emergency resuscitation medications must be immediately available (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED).
Transfer of Care and Delegation of Care
When responsibility for care is transferred from one anesthesia provider to another, or to a nurse or other healthcare worker, all relevant information about the patient’s history, medical condition, anesthetic status, and plan should be communicated to that person (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED) (http://www.who.int/patientsafety/solutions/patientsafety/PS-Solution3.pdf?ua=1). The anesthesia provider should retain overall responsibility for the patient during the recovery period and should be readily available for consultation until the patient has recovered fully.
If the anesthesia provider delegates aspects of pre-, intra-, or postoperative patient care to another healthcare worker, the anesthesia provider is responsible for ensuring that the other person is adequately qualified and conversant with relevant information regarding the anesthetic and the patient.
All patients are entitled to appropriate efforts to prevent and alleviate postoperative pain using appropriate medications and modalities; these efforts are therefore HIGHLY RECOMMENDED.
Anesthesia providers should ensure that appropriate analgesic medications are available for intra- and postoperative pain management. A strong opioid (eg, morphine) may be required for severe postoperative pain and appropriate healthcare workers (eg, postanesthesia recovery nurses) should be trained in assessment of pain and patient monitoring after opioid administration. Postoperative administration of opioids and other analgesics may be delegated to appropriately trained healthcare workers in the postanesthesia recovery area, but overall responsibility for patient care should remain with the anesthesia provider.
WHO-WFSA International Standards Workgroup
Adrian W. Gelb (USA) email@example.com
Alan F. Merry (New Zealand) firstname.lastname@example.org
Wayne Morriss (New Zealand) email@example.com
Anuja Abayadeera (Sri Lanka) firstname.lastname@example.org
Natalia Belîi (Moldova) email@example.com
Sorin J. Brull (USA) SJBrull@me.com
Aline Chibana (Brazil) firstname.lastname@example.org
Faye Evans (USA) email@example.com
Cyril Goddia (Malawi) firstname.lastname@example.org
Carolina Haylock-Loor (Honduras) email@example.com
Fauzia Khan (Pakistan) firstname.lastname@example.org
Sandra Leal (El Salvador) email@example.com
Nan Lin (China) firstname.lastname@example.org
Richard Merchant (Canada) email@example.com
Mark W. Newton (USA) firstname.lastname@example.org
Jackie S. Rowles (USA) email@example.com
Arinola Sanusi (Nigeria) firstname.lastname@example.org
Iain Wilson (UK) email@example.com
Adriana Velazquez Berumen (Mexico) firstname.lastname@example.org
Walter Johnston (USA) email@example.com
The current workgroup wishes to acknowledge the previous efforts of Drs A. F. Merry, J. B. Cooper, O. Soyannwo, I. H. Wilson, and J. H. Eichhorn. They were the workgroup who developed the 2010 version that has served as a template and inspiration for the current workgroup.
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; To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. 2000.Washington DC: The National Academies Press.
2. Braz LG, Braz DG, Cruz DS, Fernandes LA, Modolo NS, Braz JR. Mortality in anesthesia: a systematic review. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2009; 64: 999–1006.
3. Merry AF, Cooper JB, Soyannwo O, Wilson IH, Eichhorn JH. An iterative process of global quality improvement: the International Standards for a Safe Practice of Anesthesia 2010. Can J Anesth 2010; 57: 1021–6.
4. Merry AF, Cooper JB, Soyannwo O, Wilson IH, Eichhorn JH. International Standards for a Safe Practice of Anesthesia 2010. Can J Anesth 2010; 57: 1027–34.
5. Meara JG, Leather AJ, Hagander L, et al. Global surgery 2030: evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development. Lancet 2015; 386: 569–624.
8. O’Neill KM, Greenberg SL, Cherian M, et al. Bellwether procedures for monitoring and planning essential surgical care in low- and middle-income countries: caesarean delivery, laparotomy, and treatment of open fractures. World J Surg 2016; 40: 2611–9.
© 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society
9. Apfelbaum JL, Silverstein JH, Chung FF, et al. Practice guidelines for postanesthetic care: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Postanesthetic Care. Anesthesiology 2013; 118: 291–307.