From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care & Pain Management, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York
†Department of Anesthesiology
‡Department of Health Policy and Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York
§Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria
‖Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
Accepted for publication July 31, 2019.
Conflicts of Interest: See Disclosures at the end of the article.
Reprints will not be available from the authors.
Address correspondence to, Stavros G. Memtsoudis, MD, PhD, MBA, FCCP,, Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital for Special Surgery,, 535 E 70th St, New York, NY 10021. Address e-mail to, firstname.lastname@example.org.