From the *Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
†Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
‡Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
§Cardiovascular Division, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee
‖Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
¶Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
#Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Published ahead of print 5 October 2018.
Accepted for publication October 5, 2018.
Funding: J.A.B. is supported by R01HL131977 and an American Heart Association Strategically Focused Network Award. D.N.W. is supported in part by a New Investigator Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and a Merit Award from the Department of Anesthesia at the University of Toronto.
Conflicts of Interest: See Disclosures at the end of the article.
Reprints will not be available from the authors.
Address correspondence to Lee A. Fleisher, MD, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce St, Dulles 680, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Address e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.