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aColumbia University, New York, New York, Columbia University, New York, New York; bJohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; cMassachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; dMayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; eEmory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia fUniversity of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; gMedical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina; hUniversity of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; iCleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
The following authors reported no actual or potential conflicts of interest in relation to this document: Rebecca T. Hahn, MD, FASE, Theodore Abraham, MD, FASE, Mark S. Adams, RDCS, FASE, Charles J. Bruce, MD, FASE, Jack S. Shanewise, MD, FASE, Samuel C. Siu, MD, FASE, William Stewart, MD, FASE, and Michael H. Picard, MD, FASE. The following authors reported relationships with one or more commercial interests: Kathryn E. Glas, MBA, MD, FASE, edited and receives royalties for The Practice of Perioperative Transesophageal Echocardiography: Essential Cases (Wolters Kluwer Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Roberto M. Lang, MD, FASE, received research support from Philips Medical Systems (Andover, MA). Scott T. Reeves, MD, MBA, FASE, edited and receives royalties for A Practical Approach to Transesophageal Echocardiography (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA).
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This article has been co-published in Anesthesia & Analgesia and the Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography.