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Higher Operating Table for Optimal Needle-Entry Angle and Less Discomfort During Spinal Anesthesia

Sohn Hye-Min MD MS; Kim, Hyerim MD, MS; Hong, Jung-Pyo MD; Lee, Kyoung Min MD, PhD; Kim, Jinhee MD, PhD
doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000002534
Research Report: PDF Only

The aim of this study was to find the optimal table height to facilitate insertion of the spinal needle at a 90° angle and to reduce the anesthesiologist’s discomfort. Sixty patients were randomly allocated according to landmarks on the anesthesiologist’s body: umbilicus (group U), lowest rib margin (R), xiphoid process (X), and nipple (N). The coronal insertion angle between the patient’s skin and the spinal needle was obtuse in groups U and R, and 90° in group X. We demonstrated that high operating tables at the xiphoid and nipple level facilitate more optimal needle entry angles while reducing the discomfort and joint flexion of anesthesiologists during spinal anesthesia.

Funding: None.

Accepted for publication August 4, 2017.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s website (

Clinical trial number: This trial was registered at the Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0001437.

Reprints will not be available from the authors.

Address correspondence to Jinhee Kim, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 82 Gumi-ro, 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13620, Republic of Korea. Address e-mail to

© 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society

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