In today’s world, departments of anesthesiology and professional organizations are rightfully expected to have racial, ethnic, and gender diversity. Diversity and inclusiveness are considered important contributors to an effective and collaborative work environment by promoting excellence in patient care, education, and research. This has been re-emphasized in the racial reckoning in the summer of 2020, and the ongoing health care disparities manifested by the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Moreover, the negative consequences of a lack of diversity and inclusion in health care have been shown to impact recruitment, retention, and the economic well-being of academic departments. In the present article, we review the current state of diversity in anesthesiology departments and professional organizations in the United States. We discuss strategies and important approaches to further enhance diversity to promote an inclusive perioperative work environment.