With migration of medically complex patients undergoing more extensive surgical procedures to the ambulatory setting, selecting the appropriate patient is vital. Patient selection can impact patient safety, efficiency, and reportable outcomes at ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs). Identifying suitability for ambulatory surgery is a dynamic process that depends on a complex interplay between the surgical procedure, patient characteristics, and the expected anesthetic technique (eg, sedation/analgesia, local/regional anesthesia, or general anesthesia). In addition, the type of ambulatory setting (ie, short-stay facilities, hospital-based ambulatory center, freestanding ambulatory center, and office-based surgery) and social factors, such as availability of a responsible individual to take care of the patient at home, can also influence patient selection. The purpose of this review is to present current best evidence that would provide guidance to the ambulatory anesthesiologist in making an informed decision regarding patient selection for surgical procedures in freestanding ambulatory facilities.