Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is considered as a diagnosis in obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) who also have sleep-disordered breathing and awake diurnal hypercapnia in the absence of other causes of hypoventilation. Patients with OHS have a higher burden of medical comorbidities as compared to those with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This places patients with OHS at higher risk for adverse postoperative events. Obese patients and those with OSA undergoing elective noncardiac surgery are not routinely screened for OHS. Screening for OHS would require additional preoperative evaluation of morbidly obese patients with severe OSA and suspicion of hypoventilation or resting hypoxemia. Cautious selection of the type of anesthesia, use of apneic oxygenation with high-flow nasal cannula during laryngoscopy, better monitoring in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) can help minimize adverse perioperative events. Among other risk-reduction strategies are proper patient positioning, especially during intubation and extubation, multimodal analgesia, and cautious use of postoperative supplemental oxygen.