Since its clinical introduction in 2008, sugammadex has demonstrated a high degree of safety and superior effectiveness compared to neostigmine when used to antagonize muscle relaxation produced by steroid nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers. This includes its use in special populations, such as the elderly, children over 2 years old, and patients with renal, hepatic, or lung disease. In contrast, clinical evidence guiding its use during pregnancy, in women of childbearing potential, and in lactating women, is sparse. An exception is administration at the end of surgery in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery (CD) with general anesthesia (GA), for whom effectiveness and safety evidence is rapidly accumulating. We review evidence regarding sugammadex rescue reversal shortly after high-dose rocuronium in cases of cannot intubate/cannot ventilate (CICV), the extent of placental transfer of maternally administered sugammadex, adverse fetal effects of sugammadex exposure, potential effects on maintenance of early pregnancy, and the extent of transfer to breast milk. Finally, many anesthesiologists appear to heed the manufacturer’s warning regarding informing women of childbearing potential regarding the risk of hormone contraceptive failure after sugammadex exposure. We provide a medical ethics analysis of the ex post facto counseling commonly reported after sugammadex administration, which favors either preoperative discussion and shared decision making, or the decision by the physician to use neostigmine. This review highlights the disparity in evidence regarding sugammadex use in various contexts of female reproductive health, including current research gaps that prevent this population from sharing in the benefits of sugammadex enjoyed by most perioperative patients.