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Comparison of Broadband and Discrete Wavelength Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Algorithms for the Detection of Cytochrome aa3 Reduction

Thiele, Robert H. MD; Ikeda, Keita PhD; Osuru, Hari P. PhD; Zuo, Zhiyi MD, PhD

doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003572
Technology, Computing, and Simulation: Original Laboratory Research Report

BACKGROUND: Cytochrome aa3, the terminal component of the electron transport chain, absorbs near-infrared radiation (NIR) differentially depending on its oxidation state (Cytox), which can in theory be measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) by relating light absorption at specific wavelengths to chromophore concentrations. Some NIRS algorithms use discrete wavelengths, while others analyze a band of NIR (broadband NIRS). The purpose of this study was to test the ability of discrete wavelength and broadband algorithms to measure changes in Cytox (primary outcome), and to determine whether or not a discreet wavelength NIRS algorithm could perform similarly to a broadband NIRS algorithm for the measurement of Cytox in a staged hypoxia–cyanide model (hypoxia and cyanide have oppositional effects on tissue saturation, but both cause cytochrome reduction).

METHODS: Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with isoflurane, intubated, and instrumented. Blood pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and arterial oxygen saturation were measured. A halogen light source transmitted NIR transcranially. NIR from the light source and the skull was transmitted to 2 cooled charge-coupled device spectrometers. Rats were subjected to anoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen, 0.0) until arterial oxygen saturation decreased to 70%. After recovery, 5 mg/kg sodium cyanide was injected intravenously. The cycle was repeated until cardiac arrest occurred. Relative concentrations of hemoglobin and cytochrome aa3 were calculated using discreet wavelength and broadband NIRS algorithms.

RESULTS: Hypoxia led to an increase in calculated deoxyhemoglobin (0.20 arbitrary units [AUs]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–0.22; P < .0001), a decrease in calculated oxyhemoglobin (−0.16 AUs; 95% CI, −0.19 to −0.14; P < .0001), and a decrease in calculated Cytox (−0.057 AUs; 95% CI, −0.073 to 0.0040; P < .001). Cyanide led to a decrease in calculated deoxyhemoglobin (−0.037 AUs; 95% CI, 0.046 to −0.029; P < .001), an increase in calculated oxyhemoglobin (0.053 AUs; 95% CI, 0.040–0.065; P < .001), and a decrease in calculated Cytox (−0.056 AUs; 95% CI, −0.064 to −0.048; P < .001). The correlations between “discreet” wavelength algorithms (using 4, 6, 8, and 10 wavelengths) and the broadband algorithm for the measurement of calculated Cytox were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.52–0.56), 0.87 (0.87–0.88), 0.88 (0.88–0.89), and 0.95 (0.95–0.95), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The broadband and 10 wavelength algorithm were able to accurately track changes in Cytox for all experiments.

From the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Published ahead of print 5 October 2018.

Accepted for publication May 10, 2018.

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, 1K08GM115861-01A1 (R.H.T.).

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Reprints will not be available from the authors.

Address correspondence to Robert H. Thiele, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, PO Box 800710-0710, Charlottesville, VA. Address e-mail to

Copyright © 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society
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