We investigated the effects of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on central hemodynamics and left ventricular global and regional function when used to control intraoperative hypertension in 39 patients with coronary artery disease. Left ventricular short-axis, midpapillary images were obtained by transesophageal echocardiography. Using a centerline algorithm, we analyzed left ventricular images for global area ejection fraction (GAEF) and segmental area ejection fraction (SAEF). The SAEF/GAEF ratio was calculated for each of eight segments. Measurements were performed after induction of anesthesia but before skin incision; 1 min after sternotomy; and during administration of the inhaled anesthetic. The increase in arterial blood pressure during sternotomy was due to an increase in vascular resistance accompanied by increases in heart rate and filling pressures while GAEF decreased. No changes in the SAEF/GAEF ratio appeared during sternotomy. The inhaled anesthetics restored arterial blood pressure by a similar decrease in vascular resistance. Isoflurane caused an increase in cardiac index that was not seen with halothane or enflurane (halothane vs isoflurane, P < 0.05). The GAEF was decreased by halothane but unaffected by isoflurane and enflurane (halothane vs enflurane; P < 0.05). Isoflurane induced a decrease in the SAEF/GAEF ratios of two segments corresponding to the inferolateral wall of the left ventricle that was, in one of these segments, significantly more pronounced compared with both halothane and enflurane. Halothane or enflurane did not cause any change in regional wall motion. We conclude that isoflurane is more likely to cause regional wall motion changes than halothane or enflurane in patients with coronary artery disease.
Address correspondence to Dr. Ricksten, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgren's Hospital, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden.
© 1992 International Anesthesia Research Society