One hundred forty-eight adult patients having epidural anesthesia for cesarean section, postpartum tubal ligation, lower extremity orthopedic procedures, or lithotriptic therapy were assigned to five groups. Group 1 patients were given a commercially prepared 1.5% lidocaine solution with 1:200,000 epinephrine plus 1 ml of normal saline per 10 ml of lidocaine; the solution pH was 4.6. Group 2 patients were given commercially prepared 1.5% lidocaine solution plus 1:200,000 epinephrine, with 1 mEq (1 ml) NaHCO3 per 10 ml of lidocaine; the solution pH was 7.15. Group 3 patients received the commercial solution of 1.5% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine; the solution pH was 4.55. Group 4 patients were given a mixture of 18 ml of 2% lidocaine with 30 ml of 1.5% lidocaine, both commercially packaged with 1:200,000 epinephrine, plus 1 mEq (1 ml) of NaHCO3 added per 10 ml of solution; the solution pH was 7.2. Group 5 patients received 1.5% plain lidocaine to which epinephrine was added to a final concentration of 1:200,000; the solution pH was 6.35. Times of onset of analgesia (time between the completion of the anesthetic injection and loss of scratch sensation at the right hip (L-2 dermatome)) and of surgical anesthesia (time between completion of injection and loss of discomfort following tetanic stimulation produced by a nerve stimulator applied to skin on the right hip) were significantly more rapid in the groups that received the pH-adjusted solutions (groups 4 and 2). Group 4 had the fastest mean onset time, 1.92 ± 0.17 min, followed by group 2, 3.31 ± 0.23 min. Onset times were progressively longer in group 5 at 4.27 ± 0.51 min, group 3 at 4.73 ± 0.37 min, and group 1 at 7.11 ± 0.82 min. The spread of sensory blockade was also significantly more rapid in the pH-adjusted groups 5, 10, and 15 min after epidural injection. In patients having cesarean sections in groups 1 and 2, plasma lidocaine levels in the maternal peripheral venous and in umbilical cord blood and Apgar scores were similar in both groups.
Address correspondence to Dr. DiFazio, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia Medical Center, Box 238, Charlottesville, VA 22908.
© 1986 International Anesthesia Research Society