Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Immune-related Adverse Events: A Histopathologic Review : Advances in Anatomic Pathology

Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Review Articles

Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Immune-related Adverse Events: A Histopathologic Review

Alruwaii, Zainab I. MD*; Montgomery, Elizabeth A. MD

Author Information
Advances In Anatomic Pathology 30(3):p 230-240, May 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/PAP.0000000000000401

Abstract

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been increasingly used to treat various malignant neoplasms. Despite their superior efficacy in treating certain ones, their global immune-activation effect leads to systemic side effects, referred to as immune-related adverse events. Immune-related adverse events affect a variety of organs, including the skin, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and endocrine organs. Gastrointestinal tract immune-related adverse events present with a wide range of symptoms with variable severity, which may lead to treatment interruption and administration of immunosuppression therapy in many cases. Histopathologic changes are diverse, overlapping with many other conditions. Therefore, recognizing these changes is crucial in diagnosing immune-related adverse events. This review discusses the pathologic manifestations of gastrointestinal immune-related adverse events and discusses the primary differential diagnoses.

Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

You can read the full text of this article if you:

Access through Ovid