In the article “The Evolving Molecular Genetics of Low-grade Glioma” in the March 2015 issue of Advances in Anatomic Pathology on pages 94–101, the figure legends were mistakenly switched.
The legends should have been listed as follows:
FIGURE 1. FGFR1 and BRAF alterations in pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG) converge on the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Alterations in FGFR1 result in constitutive activation of the receptor resulting in activation of the MAP kinase pathway. A subset of pediatric LGG also shows mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase NTRK2. Rare mutations involve other members of this pathway including RAS, NF1 (negative regulator of RAS), and PTPN11, a tyrosine phosphatase adapter protein. BRAF V600E mutations and the BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion (other rare fusions not illustrated) also result in constitutive kinase activity and aberrant MAP kinase activation. Please see this image in color online.
FIGURE 2. IDH 1/2, ATRX, and TERT promoter mutations and 1p/19q codeletion in adult low-grade glioma (LGG). IDH 1/2 mutations are thought to be an early event in adult LGG pathogenesis in a common precursor cell. Mutations in IDH1 (cytoplasmic) and IDH2 (mitochondrial) result in the generation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). 2HG is thought to inhibit aketoglutarate-dependent demethylases resulting in histone and DNA-CpG island methylation (G-CIMP phenotype). Mutations in ATRX are seen in astrocytic tumors. ATRX is a helicase belonging to the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable family involved in H3.3 deposition (along with its partner DAXX). Its deficiency induces alternative lengthening of telomeres. 1p/19q codeletion is seen in oligodendrogliomas. CIC and FUBP1 alterations are associated with 1p/19q codeletion in a variable percentage of oligodendrogliomas. TERT promoter mutations are also noted in oligodendrogliomas and are thought to be important for telomere maintenance. Please see this image in color online.
1. Venneti S, Huse JT. The Evolving Molecular Genetics of Low-grade Glioma. Adv Anat Pathol. 2015;22:94–101.