Review ArticlesThymoma: Challenges and Pitfalls in Biopsy InterpretationOramas, Diana M. MD; Moran, Cesar A. MDAuthor Information Department of Pathology, The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Reprints: Diana M. Oramas, MD, Department of Pathology, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (e-mail: [email protected]). All figures can be viewed online in color at www.anatomicpathology.com. Advances In Anatomic Pathology: September 2021 - Volume 28 - Issue 5 - p 291-297 doi: 10.1097/PAP.0000000000000310 Buy Metrics Abstract The interpretation of biopsy specimens in the diagnosis of thymoma is a subject that is generally not addressed in the literature. Even though the diagnosis of thymoma may seem to be an easy step in the assessment of these tumors, in reality, it is the biopsy specimen interpretation that will be use to determine course of action in any particular patient. It may determine whether a patient is a surgical candidate or on the contrary whether a patient may be benefited the most by medical therapy. In addition, there may be conditions in which all that is required is surgical resection without any further treatment, and that the evaluation of those conditions does not necessarily required the careful pathologic staging that thymomas need. In addition, it is important to highlight that in small biopsies, there are limitations not only in terms of the cellularity and other features that may not be present in such biopsy but also the limitation in term of immunohistochemical interpretation. Herein we have attempted to highlight numerous tumoral conditions that are frequently encountered in the daily practice of mediastinal pathology, some of them pose significant problems in separating them from thymomas. Needles to say, the entire spectrum of mediastinal pathology that may at any given time mimic thymoma is well beyond the scope of this review. Furthermore, we also herein emphasize the need for proper clinical and radiologic information and correlation in order to lead to a better interpretation of the biopsy specimen. The emphasis in this review is on thymoma and their possible pitfall and shortcomings while evaluating small biopsy specimens. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.