Review ArticlesMesenchymal Tumors of the Mediastinum: An Update on Diagnostic ApproachChoi, Joon Hyuk MD, PhD*; Ro, Jae Y. MD, PhD†Author Information *Department of Pathology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea †Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston, TX Supported by the 2020 Yeungnam University Research Grant. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. All figures can be viewed online in color at www.anatomicpathology.com. Reprints: Joon Hyuk Choi, MD, PhD, Department of Pathology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, 170 Hyeonchung-ro, Namgu, Daegu 42415, South Korea (e-mail: [email protected]). Advances In Anatomic Pathology: September 2021 - Volume 28 - Issue 5 - p 351-381 doi: 10.1097/PAP.0000000000000306 Buy Metrics Abstract Mesenchymal tumors of the mediastinum are a heterogenous group of rare tumors with divergent lineages. Mediastinal mesenchymal tumors are diagnostically challenging due to their diversity and morphologic overlap with nonmesenchymal lesions arising in the mediastinum. Accurate histologic diagnosis is critical for appropriate patient management and prognostication. Many mediastinal mesenchymal tumors affect distinct age groups or occur at specific mediastinal compartments. Neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor, and synovial sarcoma are common mesenchymal tumors in the mediastinum. Herein, we provide an update on the diagnostic approach to mediastinal mesenchymal tumors and a review of the histologic features and differential diagnosis of common benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors of the mediastinum. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.