Lymphoproliferative disorders comprise 50% to 60% of all mediastinal malignancies in both children and adults. Primary mediastinal involvement is rare (∼5%), whereas secondary mediastinal involvement by systemic disease is more common (10% to 25%). Primary mediastinal disease is defined as involvement by a lymphoproliferative disorder of mediastinal lymph nodes, the thymus, and/or extranodal mediastinal organs without evidence of systemic disease at presentation. In this review, the clinical, radiologic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features of some of the most characteristic mediastinal lymphoproliferative disorders are presented. The entities discussed here include: classic Hodgkin lymphoma with emphasis on nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity types, and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma, mediastinal gray zone lymphoma, mediastinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, thymic marginal zone lymphoma, mediastinal plasmacytoma, T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Although not a malignant process, hyaline vascular Castleman disease is also discussed here as this disorder commonly involves the mediastinum. Despite multiple advances in hematopathology in recent decades, the day-to-day diagnosis of these lesions still requires a morphologic approach and a proper selection of immunohistochemical markers. For this reason, it is crucial for general pathologists to be familiar with these entities and their particular clinicoradiologic presentation.