Review ArticlesKey Renal Neoplasms With a Female PredominanceBaniak, Nicholas MD*; Barletta, Justine A. MD†; Hirsch, Michelle S. MD, PhD†Author Information *Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada †Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Reprints: Michelle S. Hirsch, MD, PhD, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Amory-3, Boston, MA 02115 (e-mail: [email protected]). Advances In Anatomic Pathology: July 2021 - Volume 28 - Issue 4 - p 228-250 doi: 10.1097/PAP.0000000000000301 Buy Metrics Abstract Renal neoplasms largely favor male patients; however, there is a growing list of tumors that are more frequently diagnosed in females. These tumors include metanephric adenoma, mixed epithelial and stromal tumor, juxtaglomerular cell tumor, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, Xp11.2 (TFE3) translocation-associated renal cell carcinoma, and tuberous sclerosis complex (somatic or germline) associated renal neoplasms. The latter category is a heterogenous group with entities still being delineated. Eosinophilic solid and cystic renal cell carcinoma is the best-described entity, whereas, eosinophilic vacuolated tumor is a proposed entity, and the remaining tumors are currently grouped together under the umbrella of tuberous sclerosis complex/mammalian target of rapamycin–related renal neoplasms. The entities described in this review are often diagnostic considerations when evaluating renal mass tissue on biopsy or resection. For example, Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma is in the differential when a tumor has clear cell cytology and papillary architecture and occurs in a young or middle-aged patient. In contrast, tuberous sclerosis complex–related neoplasms often enter the differential for tumors with eosinophilic cytology. This review provides an overview of the clinical, gross, microscopic, immunohistochemical, genetic, and molecular alterations in key renal neoplasms occurring more commonly in females; differential diagnoses are also discussed regardless of sex predilection. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.