Review ArticlesEmerging Entities and New Diagnostic Markers for Head and Neck Soft Tissue and Bone TumorsFranchi, Alessandro MD*; Thompson, Lester D.R. MD†; Hernandez-Prera, Juan C. MD‡; Agaimy, Abbas MD§; Williams, Michelle D. MD∥; Mikkelsen, Lauge H. MD¶; Bishop, Justin A. MD#; Willems, Stefan M. MD**,††; Hellquist, Henrik MD‡‡; Ferlito, Alfio MD§§Author Information *Department of Translational Research and of New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery University of Pisa, Pisa §§International Head and Neck Scientific Group, Padua, Italy †Department of Pathology, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Woodland Hills Medical Center, Woodland Hills, CA ‡Department of Pathology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL §Institute of Pathology, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany ∥Department of Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston #Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX ¶Department of Pathology, Eye Pathology Section, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark **Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht ††Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands ‡‡Epigenetics and Human Disease Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Medicine, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal This article was written by members and invitees of the International Head and Neck Scientific Group (www.IHNSG.com). The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Reprints: Alessandro Franchi, MD, Department of Translational Research and of New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, Pisa 56124, Italy (e-mail: [email protected]). All figures can be viewed online in color at www.anatomicpathology.com. Advances In Anatomic Pathology: May 2021 - Volume 28 - Issue 3 - p 139-149 doi: 10.1097/PAP.0000000000000295 Buy Metrics Abstract Bone and soft tissue tumors of the head and neck are relatively uncommon tumors that often represent a diagnostic challenge because of the wide range of entities that must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Over the past few years, classification of bone and soft tissue tumors has evolved primarily because of substantial contributions from molecular genetics, with the identification of new markers that are increasingly used to complement histopathologic findings in the routine diagnostic workup. This review focuses on the recently described mesenchymal tumors that preferentially involve the head and neck region, with a focus on the most relevant novel immunohistochemical and molecular findings, including gene fusions and mutations, that can help in the diagnosis and in the assessment of clinical behavior. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.