Well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (also known as “carcinoid”) of the larynx is an exceedingly rare tumor that has an epithelial origin. These tumors are malignant and have a low, but definite, risk of metastasis. Although it can be challenging, this tumor should be differentiated from moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (also known as “atypical carcinoid”). The clinical and pathologic features of this tumor, as well as treatment and prognosis, are reviewed in detail.
*Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR
†Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA
‡Department of Pathology, Liverpool Clinical Laboratories, School of Dentistry, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
§Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI
∥Department of Pathology, Allegiance Health, Jackson, MI
¶Department of Pathology and Genetics, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
#Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
**Department of Pathology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX
††Department of Pathology, Charles University, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Plzen, Czech Republic
‡‡Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
§§CBMR, Centre for Biomedical Research
∥∥Epigenetics and Human Disease Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Medicine
¶¶Algarve Biomedical Centre, Campus Gambelas, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal
##University of Udine School of Medicine, Udine
***Coordinator of the International Head and Neck Scientific Group, Padua, Italy
This article was written by members of the International Head and Neck Scientific Group (http://www.IHNSG.com).
The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.
All figures can be viewed online in color at www.anatomicpathology.com.
Reprints: Jennifer L. Hunt, MD, Med, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham Street, #517, Little Rock, AR 72205 (e-mail: email@example.com).