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Pathogenesis of Testicular Germ Cell Neoplasia

A Conceptual Approach

Baraban, Ezra G., MD; Cooper, Kumarasen, MBChB, DPhil

Advances in Anatomic Pathology: July 2019 - Volume 26 - Issue 4 - p 241–245
doi: 10.1097/PAP.0000000000000233
Review Articles

Testicular germ cell tumors are a diverse group of neoplasms, consisting of the prepubertal type 1 tumors, pure teratoma, and pure yolk sac tumor, the type 2 tumors, which are biologically malignant, preceded by germ cell neoplasia in situ, and harbor chromosome 12p abnormalities, and the type 3 tumor, spermatocytic tumor, which features chromosome 9p amplification.1 These arise in distinct clinical settings, and harbor distinct genetic abnormalities, immunohistochemical properties, and morphologic features. Here we have attempted to unify embryology, morphology, immunohistochemistry, and genetics in order to distill this fascinating group of neoplasms into what we hope is a useful framework for understanding their classification.

Department of Pathology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Reprints: Kumarasen Cooper, MBChB, DPhil, 3400 Spruce Street-6 Founders, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (e-mail:

All figures can be viewed online in color at

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