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Iatrogenic Disease of the Genitourinary Tract

Cathro, Helen P., MBChB

Advances in Anatomic Pathology: May 2019 - Volume 26 - Issue 3 - p 171–185
doi: 10.1097/PAP.0000000000000226
Review Articles

Iatrogenic disease is defined as illness caused by diagnostic procedures or treatment given by health care professionals. More recently described treatment complications involving the genitourinary tract include newly recognized variants of renal carcinoma in the setting of dialysis/end-stage renal disease, treatment effect in genitourinary carcinomas, and medical renal disease caused by drug therapies, including immunotherapy. The objective of this review is to cover iatrogenic inflammatory diseases, pseudotumors and tumors of the kidney, bladder, prostate, testis and paratestis of most interest to surgical pathologists. For this reason, disease caused by the following will not be covered: iatrogenic glomerulonephritis, self-inflicted injury including the introduction of foreign bodies, surgical error, drugs of abuse and herbal medications, and iatrogenic disease in the transplant setting including ischemia/reperfusion injury. Emphasis is placed upon commonly encountered diseases in order to ensure that the review is of utility to practicing pathologists. The clinical context, pathophysiology and histopathology of each disease entity are covered.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA

This review was supported by the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Virginia.

The author has no conflicts of interest to declare.

All figures can be viewed online in color at

Reprints: Helen P. Cathro, MBChB, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, P.O. Box 800214, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (e-mail:

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